C.O.R.N. Newsletter: 2014-09

  1. Corn Planting Progress in Ohio

    I have heard comments recently expressing concern that corn acreage planted to date is less than normal. According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service (http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Ohio/Publications/Crop_Prog...), for the week ending April 13 no appreciable acreage of corn had been planted in Ohio (0%), which compared to 1% last year and 2% for the five year average.

    The table below shows corn planting progress (percentage of acres planted) in April and May for the past 15 years. This historical data shows that the percentage of corn acres planted by April 15 is usually very limited averaging 2% and ranging from 0 to 10%. By April 20, the percentage of corn acreage planted was 10% or greater in only four of the 15 years, and by April 25, it was 10% or greater in only six of the 15 years. By April 30, the percentage of corn acres planted was 10% or greater in nine of the 15 years but in only 3 of the 15 years did the % acreage planted exceed 50%. In 2005, 55% of the corn acreage was planted by April 25 but snow and freezing rains in late April resulted in considerable replanting in early May.

    The data also show that in most years, even those with slow starts due to persistent cold weather in April, 60 percent or more of corn acres were planted by May 10, which is within the optimal planting date window. The recommended time for planting corn in northern Ohio is April 15 to May 10 and in southern Ohio, April 10 to May 10. 

    Progress of corn planting, Ohio 1999-2013.

    Date

    1999

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2008

    2009

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2013

     

    -------------------------------------------------% corn planted--------------------------------------------------

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    April 10

    -

    -

    2

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    4

    0

    April 15

    6

    2

    3

    2

    2

    2

    0

    2

    1

    0

    1

    4

    0

    10

    0

    April 20

    8

    3

    3

    2

    4

    11

    26

    6

    3

    0

    2

    17

    0

    27

    1

    April 25

    9

    5

    7

    4

    18

    30

    55

    19

    10

    6

    4

    45

    1

    44

    1

    April 30

    20

    7

    22

    7

    43

    44

    59

    43

    22

    18

    9

    58

    1

    60

    2

    May 5

    44

    33

    64

    11

    83

    57

    66

    68

    35

    33

    16

    69

    1

    73

    7

    May 10

    74

    62

    85

    15

    85

    65

    76

    79

    82

    46

    22

    77

    3

    82

    46

    Source: USDA/NASS, Annual Statistics Bulletins, 1999-2013; USDA/NASS, Crop Progress and Condition Reports, 1999-2014

  2. Soybean Planting Date

    Author(s): Laura Lindsey

    (Editor’s note: Matthew Hankinson contributed to this article) Spring is right around the corner, and it is time to start thinking about when we are going to get our planters out of the shed and into the field. Timely planting is usually thought of as being less critical for soybeans than in corn, but the date of planting has the greatest effect on yield of any production practice.

    Last year, planting was delayed due to wet soil conditions across most of the state. For southern Ohio, planting should begin after April 15th as conditions permit. In northern Ohio, aim to be in the field near the end of April. The I-70 corridor can act as a separation of these two regions that is easy to remember. From the Ohio Agronomy Guide, significant yield reductions occur when planting occurs after May 10th and can be seen in the chart below.

    Planting date 4/25 5/10 5/26 6/10 6/25 7/10
    Yield bu/acre 50.2 49.3 42.9 34.3 23.6 11.3

    Before heading to the field, consider the conditions you will be planting into. Soybean germination begins when soil temperatures reach 50°F and moisture is present at the planting depth of 1-1.5 inches. In these conditions, emergence can typically be expected 2-3 weeks after planting. Do not plant early if the soil is excessively cold or wet. Slower germination and compaction can negate the benefits of the earlier planting date.

    Why plant early? The greatest benefit is that canopy will close sooner in the growing season. In 2013, the rate of canopy closure in 30-inch rows was 1.5% per day. Narrower rows will close quicker than wide rows. Canopy closure has three benefits:

    1. Light interception. Maximum light interception occurs when the canopy is closed, which increases vegetative growth and yield potential.

    2. Weed control. Weeds that have not grown past the canopy level can be shaded out by the soybeans, reducing competition and yield loss.

    3. Soil Moisture. After canopy closure, soil water loss through evaporation is minimized and can be retained for the grain fill period.

    However, earlier planting does not come without risk. Factors such as damping off and pressure from the bean leaf beetle are always concerns to keep in mind, as well as the possibility of a late spring frost, all of which were seen in different areas of the state last year. Timely planting is critical for maximizing yield in soybeans, but using good judgment as a grower on field conditions play a role that is equally important to determining yield potential.

  3. New Soil Fertility Specialist at OSU – Steve Culman

    Author(s): Steve Culman

    I’m writing to introduce myself as the new soil fertility specialist at Ohio State. It’s great to join such a vibrant research and extension team and I’m looking forward to meeting and working with many of you. I was born and raised in Cincinnati Ohio, so getting a job at OSU is a homecoming of sorts for me. My expertise is in soil fertility and nutrient cycling, organic matter dynamics and soil food webs. I’ve worked in a wide variety of agricultural systems, including tallgrass prairies and croplands in Kansas, horticulture and croplands in California, rice-wheat systems in Nepal and corn-soybean-wheat systems in Michigan. I’ve got a lot to learn about agronomic systems in Ohio, but that’s what makes my job so fun!

    I plan to focus my research and extension program on the timely and efficient use of fertilizers, on developing farmer-based and in-field methods of nutrient management, and on long-term management strategies to build organic matter and soil fertility. One of my first priorities will be working to update the current fertilizer recommendations in Ohio. We are starting a project this spring to look at P and K in soybeans and we are looking for farmers that are interesting in participating. The project is outlined below.

    I’m looking forward to helping serve the needs of Ohio farmers. Please feel free to contact me with any questions or concerns you might have (culman.2@osu.edu or (330) 263-3787).

    Updating P and K recommendations in Soybeans

    With support from the Ohio Soybean Council, Ohio State is starting a large effort to update the current fertility recommendations for soybeans in Ohio. We will cast a broad net to collect data from a large number of farms across the state and determine updated P and K fertilization rates for soybeans.

    In order to be successful, we need help. On-farm cooperators (both farmers and county educators) will have a large degree of flexibility in the layout and management of their fields. Experiments could involve either applying additional fertilizer to plots or applying no fertilizer to plots. Growers can determine fertility rates. We are ideally looking for farms that help capture a diversity of soil types and soil test P and K ranges. Since our research farms typically have high P and K levels, low soil test P and K farms are of particular interest. We are also looking for small fields (<2 acres) available in Western Ohio to rent for contracted fertility work. Farmers and educators will be paid for their time and effort.

    Field map layout with either P or K (6 strips total)
     

    Rep 1     Rep 2     Rep 3  
    Control +P or K   +P or K Control   Control +P or K

     

     Field map layout with both P and K (9 strips total) 

      Rep 1       Rep 2       Rep 3  
    Control +P +K   +P Control +K   +K Control +P

     Data Collection (collected on every plot)

    • Soil sample in fall/ at planting
    • Collect soybean leaves at R1 (first flowering)
    • Soybean grain yield at harvest and retain grain for analysis

     Interested cooperators please contact Steve Culman at culman.2@osu.edu

Crop Observation and Recommendation Network

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.

Contributors

Amanda Douridas (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Andy Michel (State Specialist, Entomology)
Bruce Clevenger, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Eric Richer, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA (Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems)
Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA (Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems)
Jason Hartschuh, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Les Ober, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Mark Badertscher (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Mike Gastier, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Nathan Douridas, CCA (Farm Science Review Farm Manager)
Sam Custer (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Sarah Noggle (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)

Disclaimer

The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

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