Many Ohio livestock were unable to apply their normal amounts of manure last fall due to wet weather and a delayed harvest season. As a result, many producers need to haul manure this spring before the planting season.
The ammonium nitrogen and a portion of the organic nitrogen contained in spring applied manure are generally available for the growing crop. According to OSU Extension bulletin 604, 50 to 75 percent of the ammonia portion of the nitrogen could be captured if the manure is injected during application or incorporated within one day if surface applied. Approximately one-third of the organic portion of the manure nitrogen will be available regardless of whether the manure is incorporated or not.
Table 16, OSU Extension Bulletin 604
|Ammonium N Available||Organic N Available||Time of Application||Days Until Incorporated|
|50%||33%||March - April||less than 3|
|25%||33%||March - April||greater than 3|
|75%||33%||April - June||less than 1|
|25%||33%||April - June||greater than 1|
Ohio State University Extension has conducted manure research on growing crops for several years in an effort to make better use of the available nutrients.
The manure research trial in Table 1 was conducted over four years at the Northwest Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center’s Hoytville location. The swine manure application rate was 5,000 gallons per acre to get 200 units of available nitrogen. The dairy manure application rate was 13,577 gallons per acre to get 130 units of nitrogen. The dairy treatments received additional nitrogen as incorporated 28% UAN just prior to the manure application to reach the 200 unit goal. The 28% UAN treatments also received 200 units of nitrogen.
Pre-emergent applications of 28% UAN, swine manure or dairy manure were made within five days of corn planting. Post-emergent applications of 28% UAN, swine manure and dairy manure were made at the V3 stage of corn growth. All manure applications were made with a 5,200 gallon tanker and Dietrich tool bar with the incorporated manure placed at a five inch depth. Surface manure was applied by using the Dietrich toolbar held just above ground level.
Table 1. 2011 - 2014 Manure on Corn Research Plots OARDC Northwest Branch
|2011||2012||2013||2014||4 year average|
|Incorporated swine manure||191.1||128.6||191.8||146.5||164.7|
|Surface applied swine manure||180.9||109.5||175.7||137.2||150.8|
|Incorporated dairy manure + 28%UAN||190.1||132.0||185.4||166.1||168.4|
|Surface applied dairy manure + 28%UAN||184.5||97.0||166.0||141.9||147.4|
|Incorporated swine manure||180.8||138.4||196.7||139.9||164.0|
|Surface applied swine manure||178.0||116.4||188.0||115.6||149.5|
|Incorporated dairy manure + 28%UAN||180.0||138.8||192.0||156.9||166.9|
|Surface applied dairy manure + 28%UAN||170.5||101.6||181.5||125.3||144.7|
|Zero nitrogen check||74.4||62.6||82.0||67.0||71.5|
Corn sidedress plots involving the use of a drag hose to apply the manure were conducted in 2014 and will be again in 2015. A drag hose reduces concerns about soil compaction associated with applying manure to growing crops while greatly improving the efficiency of the application process.