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Corn Newsletter : 2016-38
The XtendiMax Label for Xtend Soybeans
As everyone has probably heard by now, there is finally a federal label for the use of a dicamba product, XtendiMax, on dicamba-resistant (Xtend) soybeans, such as it may be. We cover some of the highlights from the label here and in part II, some additional thoughts on what it all means.
- The XtendiMax is based on dicamba DGA (Clarity), and the formulation contains “Vapor Grip” (imagine a deep voice with reverb), which reduces the volatility of the dicamba spray mix. It’s a 2.9 lb/gallon liquid, so 22 oz provides 0.5 lb of dicamba, which is equivalent to 16 oz of Clarity and other 4 lb/gallon dicamba products.
- Minimum application rate for any use is 22 oz/A. The maximum rate per application prior to soybean emergence is 44 oz/A, which is also the total maximum allowed for all applications prior to soybean emergence. The maximum rate per application after soybean emergence is 22 oz/A, and the total of all POST applications cannot exceed 44 oz/A. The total applied per year for all applications cannot exceed 88 oz.
- POST applications can be made from emergence up to and including the R1 stage of soybean growth. Weeds should be less than 4 inches tall at time of POST application. The label states that Monsanto will not warrant product performance when applied to weeds greater than 4 inches tall (how this will work for giant ragweed we have no idea, since it comes out of the ground more than 4 inches tall).
- XtendiMax cannot be tank-mixed with any adjuvants, drift reducing agents, or other herbicides except as eventually approved by Monsanto testing and listed at this website – www.xtendimaxapplicationrequirements.com. Note – the website isn’t live yet so don’t bother going there.
- Use of ammonium sulfate, UAN, etc. is not allowed due to their potential to increase the volatility of dicamba. We assume that there will be approved AMS replacement products listed on the website eventually, to mitigate hard water issues.
- Application parameters: the only nozzle allowed at this time is the TeeJet TTI11004, used at a maximum pressure of 63 psi; minimum spray volume of 10 gpa; maximum ground speed of 15 mph; spray boom should be no more than 24 inches above target; and no aerial application.
- Do not apply if rain is forecast within the next 24 hours following application. Do not apply during temperature inversions.
- Wind speed and application: <3 mph – do not apply; 3 to 10 mph – optimum application conditions provided all other application requirements on label are met; >10 to 15 mph – do not apply when wind is blowing toward non-target sensitive crops; >15 mph – do not apply.
- When “sensitive areas” are downwind from the site of application, a buffer between the last treated soybean row and the sensitive area must be maintained as follows: 22 oz – 110 feet; 44 oz – 220 feet. The following areas can be considered part of the buffer: road, paved, or gravel surfaces; agricultural fields that have been planted to corn, Xtend soybeans, sorghum, proso millet, small grains or sugarcane (if you figure out how to successfully grow that last one here in the Midwest let us know); fields that have been prepared for planting but not yet planted; areas covered by footprint of building or other man made structure with walls and/or a roof.
- With regard to “non-target susceptible crops: do not apply where off-target movement can occur to food, forage, etc. plantings and cause damage or render the crops unfit for sale, use or consumption; applicators are required to ensure that they are aware of proximity to non-target susceptible crops, including consulting registries that list commercial specialty or certified organic crops that may be near the application site.
- Do not apply when wind is blowing toward “adjacent commercially grown dicamba sensitive crops”, including but not limited to, commercially grown tomatoes and other fruiting vegetables, cucurbits, and grapes.
- There is a whole section on herbicide resistance, which emphasizes the need for “diversified weed control strategies to minimize selection for weed populations resistant to ….herbicides….”. Some desirable resistance management practices are listed along with the need to scout for non-performance after application and report any such instances to Monsanto.
Realizing that it all had to start somewhere, if your reaction to this first label is something along the lines of – “How the heck do we even use the product based on this?”, you are not alone. Some university weed scientists are having the same thoughts. As we head into the 2017 growing season not knowing what XtendiMax can be mixed with, it obviously becomes difficult to develop a weed management plan that includes it. It’s almost impossible to come up with a cost-effective system that includes a lone application of dicamba somewhere within the multiple applications of multiple herbicide sites of action that required for control of the five major resistant weeds in the Midwest – Palmer amaranth, waterhemp, marestail, and common and giant ragweed. And we would almost never recommend and application of dicamba alone due to the selection for dicamba resistance that can occur. We assume some of this should be clarified by the growing season, so if we can all just adapt on the fly…..
It is going to be imperative that everyone involved completely understands without confusion the application guidelines with regard to not injuring nearby sensitive crops, ornamentals, etc. The label places responsibility for this directly onto the person making the application, so applicators will need to figure out what type of system and alternative plans to have in place to keep up with their typically hectic application schedule and still meet label guidelines based on current weather and proximity to sensitive crops. As may have been evident from the bullets above, there is confusing wording on the label with regard to the whole issue of non-target crops. On one page alone, there appears to be interchangeable use of “non-target sensitive” and “non-target susceptible” and “desirable sensitive crops”, and then also there is use of the term “sensitive areas” as a heading for the buffer information. And then also on the following page some information relative to the crops that are designated as overall more sensitive to dicamba than the “average susceptible crop” – tomatoes, cucurbits, and grapes. Our questions to Monsanto about this have been met with “well we are still working with EPA to figure this out”. Sometime soon would be good. Just a suggestion – consider adding some definitions of these different terms somewhere in there in addition to being consistent in their use. We will continue to provide updates and some strategies for dicamba use in Xtend soybeans as this situation evolves.
2016 Ohio Corn Performance Test Results Now Available On-Line
Results from the 2016 Ohio Corn Performance Test are now available on line at: http://oardc.osu.edu/corntrials
The purpose of the Ohio Corn Performance Test (OCPT) is to evaluate corn hybrids for grain yield and other important agronomic characteristics. Results of the test can assist farmers in selecting hybrids best suited to their farming operations and production environments. Corn hybrids differ considerably in yield potential, standability, maturity, and other agronomic characteristics that affect profitable crop production. Hybrid selection should be based on proven performance from multiple test locations and years. Single and multi-year agronomic data is available for all sites and regions for 2016.
Yields varied across the state depending on the timing and duration of drought conditions. Averaged across hybrid entries in the early and full season tests, yields were 241 bu/A in the Southwestern/West Central/Central region, 195 bu/A in the Northwestern region, and 197 in the North Central/Northeastern region. Yields at individual test sites, averaged across hybrid entries in the early and full season tests, ranged from 163 bu/A at Wooster to 256 bu/A at Hebron. The Wooster, Hoytville and Van Wert test sites were especially dry in June and July and averaged lower yields than other test locations. The full season tests averaged consistently higher yields than the early tests. Moldy grain was observed in some hybrids at Hebron and Beloit. Moderate to high levels of gray leaf spot were evident in a few hybrids at Bucyrus and Beloit. Lodging was largely absent across sites except at S. Charleston where some hybrids lodged as a result of heavy rains and strong winds in late August.
When is it Time for a No-till Field to be Tilled?
Tillage is a tool for managing many things that can go wrong on a given field. It breaks compaction (if done at the right soil moisture), improves drainage (again if done at the right soil moisture), and manages inoculum loads from residue borne insects and pathogens that impact corn, soybean, and wheat. Just like pesticides and fertilizers – too much tillage also can bring another set of problems, a compacted plow layer, but more importantly, soil erosion. With any agronomic practice, including tillage, there are benefits and drawbacks.
Below is a list of potential problems associated with no-till fields.
High levels of disease from pathogens that survive on and in crop residue: This year in 2016, we have had outbreaks of a number of pathogens that cause ear molds and leaf blights on corn, leaf spots and seed rots on soybean. The likes of what we have not seen for some time. All of these pathogens will overwinter during the 2017 cycle – so they will be ready to go and infect next season’s crop – the higher the inoculum the more disease that the 2017 season will see.
Similar to pathogens, insects can also survive on and in crop residue. Some of the top culprits are true armyworm (which like the grassy weeds and cover like rye), and fall armyworm (which prefer broadleaf weeds). The populations of caterpillars are usually tough to predict since they are migratory and their presence in the spring depends on flight patterns. In addition, higher slug populations are often associated with fields that have a lot of residue. Some of these issues in no-till fields could be controlled by appropriate weed management and good spring scouting.
Most weeds are controlled adequately in no-tillage systems with the currently available herbicide systems. Tillage can be an effective option for management of biennial and perennial weeds – primarily those that have simple root systems (e.g. deep taproots). Tillage can also help with control of perennials with creeping roots or rhizomes, but primarily when integrated with an herbicide application. A combination of fall and spring tillage operations, or even thorough spring tillage alone, can control marestail for at least the current growing season. Tillage must completely uproot emerged marestail plants and uniformly mix the upper few inches of soil. The spring tillage should ideally occur as close to planting as possible. Be aware also that in fields where the soil seedbank is heavily infested with marestail seed, tillage can turn up seeds to the soil surface where germination and emergence is more likely.
Consider soil drainage. In poorly drained fields, tillage can help reduce yield losses from late planting. Tilled fields will warm up and dry out quicker in the spring. In well-drained fields, no-till is often a better option with many benefits including conservation of soil moisture, reduction in erosion and soil crusting, and reduction in fuel and labor. Corn response to tillage is strongly influenced by soil type and crop rotation. No-till cropping systems are more likely to succeed on poorly drained soils (like those in Northwest Ohio) if corn follows soybean or forage legumes rather than corn or a small grain, such as wheat. On the poorly drained silty clay loam soils, where corn follows soybean or meadow, yield differences between no-till and plowed soils are reduced. Crop rotation with soybeans generally has much less effect on corn response to tillage on the well-drained silt loam. This yield advantage to growing corn following soybean is often much more pronounced when drought occurs during the growing season.
2016 Grain is in the Bin - What Should I Watch for?
There are many reasons why on-farm grain storage is used by producers across Ohio. It may be part of the marketing strategy, feed storage for farm use, and/or income and tax management to complete grain sales before and/or after the new calendar year. Regardless of the reason, an essential requirement is to maintain quality grain during the storage period to preserve the grain for end usage and economic value. 2016 presented some grain quality challenges, especially for corn so it will be important to manage the grain during the next several months.
Two factors to consider related directly to the stored grain condition are the grain moisture content and the grain mass temperature. The general idea is the longer the grain is stored, the lower the grain moisture content. If corn was moldy at harvest, it should be dried to 13% regardless of the length of storage. Without mold, corn should be dried down to maximum of 15% moisture content if stored from harvest to January 1, 14% if stored from harvest to early Spring (say April 1), and 13% if stored past April 1 and carried into the warmer spring and summer months. Soybeans are similar at 13%, 12%, and 11%, respectively. Grain mass temperature is also important. Fortunately, Ohio farmers can effectively take advantage of fall and winter temperatures by chilling the grain to 32 to 35 degrees Fahrenheit from harvest by mid-December.
After the bin is loaded, the center core of grain should be pulled from the bin. Fine material will naturally load near the center of the round bin and negatively impact the aeration efficiency. When the bin is loaded, the grain mass is typically pointed up like a cone, after the core is pulled (unloaded) the cone is flattened or inverted as a depression. After coring the bin, the grain mass should be leveled flat for a most efficient aeration. If the core grain is found to be containing fine and foreign material, it should be cleaned and stored or sold off farm with a potential discounted value.
The aeration system on bins will either move air from the top and exhaust out the bottom or move air from the bottom and exhaust air out the top. Whichever direction, the cooling front needs to move completely through and out the grain mass. Monitor the exhaust end for the final desired moisture and temperature. Consider sealing off fans when they are off to prevent migration of moisture and temperature into the cool, dry grain.
Bin conditions should be monitored bi-weekly until the temperature reaches 32 to 35 degrees and then monthly through the winter months. Record the grain moisture and temperatures at multiple locations at the top of the grain mass. Just know that the center and north vs. south sides of the grain bin may have different grain moisture and temperatures and they are worth monitoring and recording them separately. Be aware of smells when entering the bin. Look for condensation or mold on the bin walls and roof. Grain that is going out of condition will often have a moldy smell while moisture and mold is a sign that conditions are not favorable for grain storage.
The grain handling facility should be clean before and after the grain is loaded. The bin, equipment and storage area should be free of grain spills, weeds and excessive vegetation. Starting with cleaned grain, stored into a clean bin will prevent problems. Questionable grain due to high levels of broken grain, fines, foreign material, or mold should be stored separately or moved out the quickest compared to other higher quality grain.
Insects can be monitored early and throughout the storage period. For insect activity in the grain mass, a passive, pitfall trap can be used. One particular pitfall trap is the Storgard WB Probe II by Trece. It’s approximately 18 inches long with a diameter of 1.25 inches. The pitfall trap is inserted into the grain mass with the tapered end first until the top of the trap is even with the grain surface. Multiple traps are used simultaneously with one in the center and 2 to 4 traps around the outside of the bin walls no closer than 24 inches from the bin wall. The traps remain in the grain for 3 days and then removed. The tapered end of the trap spins off to reveal where fallen insects are collected.
The insects can be properly identified to determine if they are primary or secondary insect pest for stored grain. Primary insects can do direct damage to whole grain such as weevils or Lesser Grain Borer, while secondary insects feed on mold, cracked and damage grain such as Foreign Grain Beetle, Red and Confused Flour Beetles. A grain bin of whole undamaged kernels stored at the proper temperature and moisture is the key to preventing the secondary feeders.
While grain bin management is important, safety in and around grain bins is an absolute. Climbing and entering a grain bin can be extremely dangerous due to falls or grain entrapment. Every entry to a grain bin needs to be pre-planned to identify hazards. Proper safety equipment is essential for all involved. Entry should never be made without a plan that involves informing a fellow farm employee or family member. Safe entry will ensure a safe exit.
Kernel Red StreakAuthor(s): Peter Thomison
With this kernel anomaly, red streaks form on sides of kernels and extend over the crown. Streaked kernels are more common at ear tips, especially if the husks are loose and kernels exposed. Kernel red streak is sometimes attributed to ear molds or mycotoxins. However, the red streaking is actually caused by a toxin secreted during feeding by the wheat curl mite Eriophyes tulipae, the vector of the wheat streak mosaic virus. There is no evidence that consumption of corn exhibiting kernel red streak is harmful. The streaking develops in the pericarp but does not affect the feed or nutritional value of corn. The severity of symptom expression varies among hybrids. Kernel red streak is most common on yellow dent and least common on white corn. The reddish discoloration may affect certain uses of food grade corn (may be regarded a cosmetic blemish), and may thereby reduce premiums.
West Ohio Agronomy DayAuthor(s): Debbie Brown, CCA
West Ohio Agronomy Day will be held on Monday, January 9th at St. Michael’s Hall in Fort Loramie, (Shelby County) from 8:30a-4p. This is our annual Recertification Program for Private Pesticide Applicators and will also include the two-hour Fertilizer Applicator Certification Training for those who already have a Pesticide Applicator License. In addition, there will be Continuing Education Units (CEUs) available for Certified Crop Advisors.
University presenters confirmed to date are Dr. Fred Whitford from Purdue University (“Safety is in Your Hands”) and Dr. Kelly Tilmon from OSU (Corn and Soybean Insect Update). In addition, ANR Educators from the area and Agronomy Field Specialists will be teaching various components. Mark your calendars now to attend this “Food, Fun, Fellowship, Lots of Information, and a Free Publication” event!! Watch for more news later!!
The Evening Portion of West Ohio Agronomy Day will be on Tuesday, January 17th at the Days Inn (“old Holiday Inn”) in Sidney, beginning at 5p with a light supper and ending about 11p. This program will also include the two-hour Fertilizer Applicator Certification Training and the Private Pesticide Recertification Training. While this program will address many of the same topics as the daytime program, the teaching here will consist of Field Specialists and ANR Educators.
About the C.O.R.N. Newsletter
C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.
The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.
CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.