Corn Newsletter : 2017-37

  1. Avoid costly problems in the spring by proper winterizing of your sprayer now

    Author(s): Erdal Ozkan

    It is very likely that you will not be using your sprayer again until next spring. If you want to avoid potential problems and save yourself from frustration and major headaches, you will be wise to give your sprayer a little bit of TLC (Tender Loving Care) these days. Yes this is still a busy time of the year for some of you, but don’t delay winterizing your sprayer too long if you already have not done so. You don’t want a pump that is cracked and/or not working at its full capacity because you did not properly winterize it before the temperature falls below freezing. Here are some important things you need to do with your sprayer this time of the year.

    Rinsing

    It is very likely that you did the right thing when you used the sprayer the last time: you rinsed the whole system (tank, hoses, filters, nozzles) thoroughly. If you did not, make sure this is done before storing the sprayer. A sprayer that is not rinsed thoroughly after each use, and especially after the spraying season is over, may lead to cross-contamination of products applied for different crops, and clogging of nozzles. Pay even more attention to avoid cross-contamination problems that may result in serious crop injury if you are using some of the new 2,4-D and Dicamba herbicides. Another problem that may result from lack of, or insufficient rinsing of the complete sprayer parts is clogged nozzles. Once the nozzles are clogged, it is extremely difficult to bring them back to their operating conditions when they were clean. Leaving chemical residues in nozzles will usually lead to changes in their flow rates, as well as in their spray patterns resulting in uneven distribution of chemicals on the target.

    Depending on the tank, proper rinsing of the interior of the tank could be easy or challenging. It will be very easy if the tank is relatively new and is equipped with special rinsing nozzles and mechanism inside the tank. If this is not the case, manual rinsing of the tank interior is more difficult, and poses some safety problems such as inhaling fumes of leftover chemicals during the rinsing process. To avoid these problems, either replace the tank with one that has the interior rinse nozzles, or install an interior tank rinse system in your existing tank.

    For effective rinsing of all the sprayer components, circulate clean water through the whole sprayer parts several minutes first with the nozzles off, then flush out the rinsate through the nozzles. Rinsing should be done preferably in the field, or on a concrete chemical mixing/loading pad with a sump to recover rinse water. Regardless, dispose of the rinsate according to what is recommended on the labels of the pesticides you have used. Always check the label for specific instructions. However, most labels recommend following procedure: If rinsing is done on a concrete rinse pad with a sump, put the rinsate collected in the sump back in the tank, dilute it with water and spray it in the field where there is no potential for the rinsate to reach ditches and other water bodies nearby. If the rinsing is done in the field, make sure you are not flushing out the rinsate in the system in one area. It is best to further dilute the rinse water in the tank and, spray it on the field on areas where there is no potential for the rinsate to reach ditches and other water bodies nearby.

    Cleaning

    Rinsing the system with water as explained above may not be sufficient to get rid of chemicals from the sprayer. This may lead to cross-contamination problems. Residues of some pesticides left in the sprayer may cause serious problems when a spray mixture containing these residual materials is applied on a crop that is highly sensitive to that pesticide. To avoid such problems, it is best to clean and rinse the entire spraying system with some sort of a cleaning solution. Usually a mixture of 1 to 100 of household ammonia to water should be adequate for cleaning the tank, but you may first need to clean the tank with a mixture containing detergent if tank was not cleaned weeks ago, right after the last spraying job was done. Some chemicals require specific rinsing solution. There is an excellent Extension Publication from University of Missouri which lists many commonly used pesticides and the specific rinsing solutions required for them. It is available online. Check it out (http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G4852). However, you should always check the product label to find out the most recent recommendations on cleaning agents.

    Cleaning the outside of the sprayer components deserves equal attention. Remove compacted deposits with a bristle brush. Then flush the exterior parts of the equipment with water. A high pressure washer can be used, if available. Wash the exterior of the equipment either in the field away from ditches and water sources nearby, or a specially constructed concrete rinse pad with a sump. Again, the rinsate should be disposed of according to the label recommendations. As I mentioned earlier, most labels recommends the same practice: put the rinsate collected in the sump back in the tank, dilute it with water and spray it in the field where there is no potential for the rinsate to reach ditches and other water bodies nearby.

    Winterizing

    Check one more time to make sure there is no liquid left inside any of the sprayer parts to prevent freezing. Especially the pump, the heart of a sprayer, requires special care. You don’t want a pump that is cracked and/or not working at its full capacity because you did not properly winterize it before the temperature falls below freezing. After draining the water, add a small amount of oil, and rotate the pump four or five revolutions by hand to completely coat interior surfaces. Make sure that this oil is not going to damage rubber rollers in a roller pump or rubber parts in a diaphragm pump. Check the operator's manual. If oil is not recommended, pouring one tablespoon of radiator rust inhibitor in the inlet and outlet part of the pump also keeps the pump from corroding. Another alternative is to put automotive antifreeze with rust inhibitor in the pump and other sprayer parts. This also protects against corrosion and prevents freezing in case all the water is not drained. To prevent corrosion, remove nozzle tips and strainers, dry them, and store them in a dry place. Putting them in a can of light oil such as diesel fuel or kerosene is another option.

    Storage

    Find ways to protect your sprayer against the harmful effects of snow, rain, sun, and strong winds. Moisture in the air, whether from snow, rain, or soil, rusts metal parts of unpro­tected equipment of any kind. This is especially true for a sprayer, because there are all kinds of hoses, rubber gaskets and plastic pieces all around a sprayer. Yes, the sun usually helps reduce moisture in the air, but it also causes damage. Ultraviolet light softens and weakens rubber materials such as hoses and tires and degrades some tank materials. The best protection from the environment is to store sprayers in a dry building. Storing sprayers in a building also gives you a chance to work on them any time during the off-season regardless of weather. If storing in a building is not possible, provide some sort of cover. When storing trailer-type sprayers, put blocks under the frame or axle and reduce tire pressure during storage.

    Finally, check the condition of all sprayer parts one more time before leaving the sprayer behind. Identify the parts that may need to be worked on, or replaced. Check the tank, and hoses to make sure there are no signs of cracks starting to take place. Check the painted parts of the sprayer for scratched spots. Touch up these areas with paint to eliminate corrosion. By the way, don’t forget to cover openings so that birds don’t make a nest somewhere in your sprayer, and insects, dirt, and other foreign material cannot get into the system.

     

  2. Updating the Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations

    In 2014, the OSU Soil Fertility Lab (soilfertility.osu.edu) started work to update the Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations. These recommendations form the basis of our corn, soybean, wheat and alfalfa nutrient recommendations, but were last updated in 1995. We have partnered with many OSU extension county educators, private crop consultants and individual farmers to run extensive strip trials across the state over the past 4 years. To date, we have over 100 P trials, and nearly 100 K trials that have been conducted in 33 Ohio counties (Figure 1). We have also conducted extensive N rate trials, N timing trials and some trials looking at sulfur needs (not included in map below).

    Fig 1. Shaded counties denote where P or K on-farm trials were conducted.

    At each site, we’ve collected: 1) soil samples for soil test, 2) leaf tissue concentration at flowering, 3) grain nutrient concentration at harvest, 4) grain yields and 5) management history information. The last of these trials are being harvested now. We are working with Michigan State University and Purdue University with the intention of continuing our recommendations as a 3-state document. Although this is a major undertaking, we hope to have summarized data and new recommendations ready in the summer of 2018. We are genuinely grateful for all the support, commitment and buy-in of the agricultural community in this process and we are looking forward to sharing results with the public in the coming months. This work is being supported by the Ohio Soybean Council and the Ohio Corn and Small Grains Marketing Programs.

     

  3. Cover Crop Field Day

    Author(s): Dean Kreager

    A Cover Crop Field Day will be held in Licking County on Thursday November 16th, 2017 from 1:00 to 4:00 p.m.

    Producers can learn potential benefits of cover crops, including soil quality improvement, erosion control, fertility improvement, and weed suppression.  Management issues such as termination of cover crops will be addressed.  We will have plots displaying seeding utilizing different methods and examples of a few types of cover crops such as cereal rye, oats, turnips, radish, and clover.

    The cost will be $10 per person.  Preregister by November 9th by calling 740-670-5315 or emailing kreager.5@osu.edu. For more information, including a detailed agenda, click here.

  4. Ohio Certified Crop Adviser Pre-Exam Training Seminar

    The Certified Crop Adviser (CCA) Exam Training program, sponsored and delivered by the OSU Agronomic Crops Team, will be offered at the Shelby County Extension Office, 810 Fair Rd, Sidney, Ohio 45365 on January 10 & 11, 2018 beginning at 9:00 a.m. on the 10th and adjourn by 5:00 p.m. on the 11th. The price for the Pre-Exam preparation class is $250. Secure on-line registration via credit card, debit card or check is available at: http://www.cvent.com/d/jtqpf2. Register early; due to class interaction, we keep it small. This is an intensive two-day program somewhat directed toward the local exam – to be used as a reminder on what best to study in preparation for the CCA exams.

    Course contact:

    Harold Watters, CPAg, CCA
    Ohio State University Extension
    1100 S. Detroit St
    Bellefontaine, OH 43311
    Phone 937 604-2415 cell, or by email: watters.35@osu.edu for more information.

    We will provide each participant with the following publications in addition to lectures:

    • The new 2017 Ohio Agronomy Guide
    • Ohio, Indiana & Illinois Weed Control Guide
    • 2014 Corn, Soybean, Wheat and Alfalfa Field Guide or equivalent
    • Tri-State Fertility Guide
    • Modern Corn & Soybean Production
    • And many handouts

    Meals, snacks, coffee will also be provided at the site during the class.

    Not covered directly in the class is the international exam. We recommend this very good study resource for the international exam, “Preparing for the International CCA Exam”, to be available for purchase on November 7th. To order: https://store.ipni.net/products/preparing-for-the-international-certified-crop-adviser-exam. This guide is divided into four main categories; Nutrient Management, Crop Management, Pest Management, Soil/Water Management with subject matter and questions/answers at end of each chapter.

    For more information on the Certified Crop Adviser program: http://certifiedcropadviser.org

    Steps to Certification:

    The steps below are simply an overview of the process of becoming a CCA. Anyone interested in becoming certified is encouraged to review the detailed documentation in the Credential Information Workbook before starting the process. The steps to certification are:

    1. Pass two comprehensive exams (International and Local Board). CCA exams will be given twice in 2018. Register for the February exam at http://www.certifiedcropadviser.org/exams, at least six weeks (December 8th) before the next exam on February 2nd.

    2. Meet the experience requirements

    • Have at least two years of experience with at least a Bachelor of Science Degree in an agronomy related field, (The number of CCAs with at least a Bachelor of Science Degree is greater than 70%)
    • Have at least three years of experience with an Associates Degree in an agronomy related field,
    • Or have at least four years of experience with no degree.

    3. Apply for the CCA Credential

    Document education and crop advising experience (Including transcripts and supporting references)

    Sign and agree to uphold the CCA Code of Ethics (Included in application)

    Once Certified:

    Earn 40 hours of continuing education (CEU) every two years and pay an annual renewal fee.

About the C.O.R.N. Newsletter

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.

Contributors

Allen Gahler (Sandusky County)
Amanda Bennett (Miami County)
Amanda Douridas (Champaign County)
Andy Michel (State Specialist, Entomology)
Chris Zoller (Tuscarawas County)
Clifton Martin, CCA (Muskingum County)
David Dugan (Adams County)
Dean Kreager (Licking County)
Debbie Brown, CCA (Shelby County)
Elizabeth Hawkins (Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems)
Erdal Ozkan (State Specialist, Sprayer Technology)
Eric Richer, CCA (Fulton County)
Glen Arnold, CCA (Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management )
Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA (Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems)
Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA (Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems)
Jason Hartschuh, CCA (Crawford County)
Jeff Stachler (Auglaize County)
John Schoenhals, CCA (Williams County)
Lee Beers, CCA (Trumbull County )
Les Ober, CCA (Geauga County)
Mark Badertscher (Hardin County)
Mike Estadt (Pickaway County)
Mike Gastier, CCA (Huron County)
Peter Thomison (State Specialist, Corn Production)
Rory Lewandowski, CCA (Wayne County)
Sam Custer (Darke County)
Sarah Noggle (Paulding County)
Steve Culman (State Specialist, Soil Fertility)
Wayne Dellinger (Union County)

Disclaimer

The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.