Corn Newsletter : 2019-03

  1. Weather Outlook

    Author(s): Jim Noel

    The weather and climate pattern has been on a real roller coaster ride and it is expected to continue right into spring.

    Currently, the climate models are struggling to deal with the ocean conditions in the Pacific Ocean. Most models have been forecasting an El Nino this winter into spring and it just has not happened as of this time. In addition, without an El Nino or La Nina going on, this creates greater uncertainty in our weather and climate. It appears this may at least last into early spring.

    February is shaping up to be wet with significant temperatures swings. Rainfall is forecast to range from about 2 inches in far northern Ohio to possibly 6 in southern Ohio over the next two weeks. Combine the rain with recent snowmelt and icemelt and conditions will be very wet and muddy.

    Many climate models are suggesting a warmer and drier than normal spring but based on recent trends, it appears to be shaping up to be normal or wetter than normal into April but uncertainty is high. 

    The latest two week rainfall map is attached. You can see a very heavy rain event for portions of the Ohio Valley in the next two weeks. 

    You can see updated potential for flooding at the NOAA/NWS/OHRFC flood briefing pages:

    https://www.weather.gov/ohrfc/FloodBriefing

    The 16-day rainfall potential map is located here:

    https://www.weather.gov/images/ohrfc/dynamic/NAEFS16.apcp.mean.total.png

    You can also see updated seasonal outlooks at the NOAA/NWS/OHRFC seasonal briefing pages here:

    https://www.weather.gov/ohrfc/SeasonalBriefing

  2. The LL-GT27 soybean – what’s legal?

    Author(s): Mark Loux

    We are starting to see the availability of soybean varieties with more than two herbicide resistance traits, which can expand the herbicide options, improve control, and allow multiple site of action tank mixes that reduce the rate of selection for resistance.  One of these is the Enlist soybean, with resistance to glyphosate, glufosinate, and 2,4-D.  As of this writing, full approval for the Enlist soybean is still being held up by the Philippines (because they can apparently).  The other is the LL-GT27 soybean, which has resistance to glyphosate, glufosinate, and isoxaflutole (Balance).  There is no label for use of isoxaflutole on this soybean yet, but it is legal to apply both glyphosate and glufosinate.  In Ohio, as long as neither label prohibits applying a mixture of two herbicides labeled for a specific use, it’s legal to apply the mixture.  So, it’s also legal to apply a mixture of glyphosate and glufosinate to the LL-GT27 soybean.  There is no label that actually mentions or provides guidance for this mixture, which does not affect legality, but could affect who assumes liability for the recommendation to apply a mixture if that matters to you.  Some seed companies are making the recommendation for POST application of the mix of glyphosate and glufosinate to the LL-GT27 soybean in printed materials.  Our interpretation after discussion with ODA, is that these materials are essentially supplements to labels, and so the seed company would assume some liability for the recommendation.  

    Our assumption is that for the POST application of this mixture, the glufosinate is carrying most of the load for the control of ragweeds, marestail, and waterhemp, which generally have resistance to glyphosate.  Glufosinate could use some help on larger giant foxtail, and definitely needs help on several grasses that it’s weak on – barnyardgrass, yellow foxtail, etc.  Many users of LibertyLink soybeans have made it a practice to consistently add a POST grass herbicide such as clethodim.  For the LL-GT27 soybean, one would have the choice of going this route or replacing the clethodim with glyphosate to control grasses or perennial weeds.  We have had a lot of insightful questions from growers about the wisdom of mixing a systemic and contact herbicide together.  While there’s not much research-based information yet on how well glyphosate and glufosinate work together, there’s probably not much issue with adding a low rate of glyphosate to glufosinate to control grasses.  And we have other examples where contact and systemic herbicides are successfully used together – e.g. Gramoxone + 2,4-D + metribuzin; glyphosate + fomesafen.  A colleague at Purdue related that the two herbicides require different types of surfactants which creates an interesting dilemma.  Both products contain a full surfactant load though, so a mixture should have plenty of whatever surfactants are being used for sure.  A couple of other things to keep in mind:

     

    - In mixtures of systemic and contact herbicides, it’s important to optimize the application parameters for the contact herbicide.  In this case, it’s especially important to optimize the glufosinate since it’s controlling the glyphosate-resistant broadleaf weeds.  Optimizing glufosinate means higher spray volumes and smaller spray droplets, compared to what is needed for glyphosate alone (which works with almost any spray parameters).  Both herbicides require the addition of AMS.  Keep in mind also that glufosinate requires warm, sunny conditions for maximum activity.  And the activity of both herbicides is reduced in late evening through early morning.

    - Sources tell us that, depending upon glyphosate rate, the cost of adding clethodim versus glyphosate to glufosinate is a wash to a slight advantage for glyphosate.  Higher rates of glyphosate will be needed where perennial weeds are the target.  The long-term potential for herbicide resistance could also be considered as part of the cost-benefit analysis here.  Populations of glyphosate-resistant annual grasses have become more prevalent in soybean-growing areas.  Continuous use of glyphosate for control of annual grasses in soybeans can increase the rate of resistance development, especially where glyphosate is used as a primary POST herbicide in corn also.  Paying somewhat more for clethodim in certain years of the rotation may therefore provide long-term weed management benefits compared with use of cheaper glyphosate.

  3. Double-Crop Soybean Yields after Barley in Northwest Ohio

    Several growers across the state had the opportunity to grow winter malting barley in 2018.  We had the opportunity to work with eight of those growers from Northwest Ohio, in particular, to learn more about the viability of growing this newly, re-introduced crop.  As a learning cohort of sorts, these growers agreed to share their yield and quality data results while participating in a simple, field-scale research project with these two objectives:

     1) Determine the field-scale, simple averages for yield (grain & straw), harvest date and quality characteristics for barley grown in Northwest Ohio.

    Simply put: Can we grow barley with high yield and good quality?

    2) Compare the yield and plant/harvest dates for the same variety soybean as a i) first crop system, ii) double crop after barley system and iii) double crop after wheat system.

    Simply put: What will the double crop soybeans yield in this barley system?

    The first objective from above was answered in an article we wrote in the CORN newsletter here https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/2018-30/northwest-ohio-field-scale-barley-yield-results. To summarize, the barley data over nine sites in 2018 shows these averages for the variety Puffin: harvest date of June 26th,  barley yield of 86.5 bushels per acre, straw yield of 1.01 ton per acre and barley quality of 11.6% protein, 98.5% germination, 87.5% plumpness and .45 ppm DON.

    In this article, we would like to focus on the soybean data associated with this study. The data presented below was based on one growing season and should be interpreted as such.

    Study Design

    Each barley grower in the cohort was asked to plant a ‘paired-site’ field of first crop soybeans adjacent to their barley field with the goal of comparing yields of double crop soybeans after barley to the of first crop soybeans (check).  Eight growers utilizing eleven different variety comparisons (sites) participated in these paired sites.  Additionally, four growers utilizing five variety comparisons (sites) had a wheat field adjacent to or nearby these paired sites and planted double crop soybeans after wheat.  One could consider the double crop soybeans after wheat a more important ‘check’ than first crop soybeans. It may depend on your perspective or whether you are a wheat grower or not.

    Growers were asked to use the same soybean variety (Table 1) in each scenario to eliminate varietal differences. Soybeans maturities ranged from 2.5 to 3.5 and several trait platforms were used (non-GMO, Roundup, Xtend, and Liberty) based on the grower’s preference.

    Table 1. Study Location Background - Soybean Fields

     

    County

    Pre-Plant Tillage

    Variety

    Maturity

    Trait

    Defiance

    No Till

    SC 93-35

    3.2

    RoundUp

    Fulton - 1

    Full Till

    R333R2 Brodbeck

    3.3

    RoundUp

    Fulton - 2

    No Till

    Pioneer 33A81 PR

    3.3

    Plenish

    Fulton - 3

    Full Till

    Iowa 3051

    3.1

    Non-GMO

    Fulton - 4

    Full Till

    Pioneer 31T11

    3.1

    RoundUp

    Fulton - 5

    Full Till

    Rupp 31XT40

    3.1

    Xtend

    Fulton - 6

    No Till

    Pioneer 27T91 PR

    2.7

    Plenish

    Hancock

    Full Till

    Becks 3559XT

    3.5

    Xtend

    Henry - 1

    No Till

    NuTech 3361L

    3.3

    Liberty

    Henry -2

    No Till

    Pioneer 92T50

    2.5

    Non-GMO

    Paulding - 1

    No Till

    AGI 3501XT

    3.5

    Xtend

     

    One of the notable considerations for planting barley—especially for Northern Ohio—is the possibility of planting double crop soybeans 6-10 days earlier than one would normally plant after wheat.  In 2018, the average planting date for first crop soybeans was May 22 with an average as planted seeding rate of 175,000 seeds/acre. The average planting date for soybeans after barley was July 1 with an average seeding rate of 187,000 seeds/acre.  The soybeans planted after wheat had a July 7 average at an average seeding rate of 197,000 seeds/acre.  In this production year across these sites, the double crop soybeans after barley only gained 6 days as compared to those sites that had double crop soybeans after wheat. Additionally, all growers in the cohort felt strongly that removal of the straw made for more effective double crop soybean planting. 

    Yield Results

    All sites were harvested for yield, (Table 2) over nearly two months’ time due to challenging weather. All yields reported were standardized to 13% moisture. First crop soybeans yielded 59.3 bushels per acre with a 14.0% harvest moisture and had an average harvest date of October 17. The soybeans after barley yielded 36.6 bushels per acre with an 18.7% harvest moisture and had an average harvest date of November 17.  Finally, the soybeans after wheat yielded 19.5 bushels per acre with a harvest moisture of 17.8% and an average harvest date of November 29.    

    Table 2. Average soybean data across paired sites.

         

    Description

    1st Crop Soybeans
    (11 sites/varieties)

    Soybeans after Barley
    (11 sites/varieties)

    Soybeans after Wheat
    (5 sites/varieties)

    Average

    Range

    Average

    Range

    Average

    Range

    Plant Date

    May 22

    May 1-June 7

    July 1

    June 26-July 12

    July 7

    July 5-12

    Seeding Rate
    (sds/ac)

    175k

    160-190k

    187k

    170-210k

    197k

    180-215k

    Harvest Date

    Oct 17

    Oct 5-Nov 23

    Nov 17

    Oct 25-Dec 12

    Nov 29

    Nov 23-Dec 11

    Harvest Moisture
    (%)

    14.0

    11.0-18.5

    18.7

    14.3-25.0

    17.8

    16.5-18.7

    Harvest Stand
    (plants/ac)

    113k

    85-130

    139k

    115-173k

    151k

    130-180k

    Yield
    (bu/ac)

    59.3

    47-76

    36.6

    25-47

    19.5

    31-Jul

     

    Barley Growing Considerations

    The decision to raise a new crop like barley should be based on the information gathered by each producer, how that particular crop fits into each operation, having a contract and delivery point in place prior to planting, and the overall profitability of the enterprise.  Barley may or may not be for your farm.  It does allow a grower to add crop diversity to the rotation while using existing equipment (grain drill, sprayer, combine). However, growing a food grade, identity preserved (IP) crop requires specified quality standards and segregated storage as compared to commodity crops. Additionally, the planting and harvesting logistics for barley may not fit into all operations.  The list of advantages and disadvantages is much more extensive but these could be observed as some of the most important.

    Summary

    In summary, much is yet to be learned on barley production in Northwest Ohio.  Yield data from this growers’ cohort suggests that double crop soybean yield after barley can be significantly better than soybean yield after wheat.  While this article contains just one year of data from eight growers, it will start to answer the question of whether winter barley is a viable option for farmers in Northwest Ohio.  For information on management, visit https://stepupsoy.osu.edu/winter-malting-barley and search for the Extension publication Management of Ohio Winter Malting Barley. For more information on this research study, download the eFields 2018 Report, pp 174-175 at www.go.osu.edu/efields.

    The authors wish to thank the cooperators from Defiance, Fulton, Hancock, Henry, and Paulding Counties who participated in this learning cohort. We hope to repeat it again in 2019 and if you are growing winter barley for harvest in 2019 and would like to be part of the cohort, send inquiries to richer.5@osu.edu or ruff.72@osu.edu

  4. American Society of Agronomy Webinar Series on Fusarium Head Blight

    Author(s): Pierce Paul

    A national group of plant pathologists, including Pierce Paul from The Ohio State University, will be presenting a two-part webinar series to help U.S. wheat producers management Fusarium head blight (FHB), also known as head scab or scab. FHB affect wheat, barley and other small grain crops, reducing yield and contaminating grain with mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol, AKA vomitoxin.

    As part of this American Society of Agronomy series, Paul, Carl Bradley, plant pathologist at the University of Kentucky, and Christina Cowger, plant pathologist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agriculture Research Service, will present and discuss up-to-date research findings on cultural practices, variety resistance, and fungicides for effective management FHB and vomitoxin. The USDA-ARS U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative, which is sponsoring these webinars, funded much of the research the scientists will be presenting.

    The webinars are at 11 a.m. CST on Monday Feb. 11 and Monday Feb. 18. Register for free at https://tinyurl.com/ycmvel4p.

    Adapted from Katie Pratt: https://news.ca.uky.edu/article/webinar-help-wheat-producers-better-manage-fusarium-head-blight.

  5. Learn More about eFields at Regional Meetings

    The Ohio State Digital Ag team is hosting four regional eFields meetings this month. Join us to learn more about the eFields program and results we are seeing across the state. Each meeting will feature presentations highlighting local trials including seeding rate, nutrient management, and crop management. There will be a panel discussion featuring cooperating farmers who are conducting on-farm research with Ohio State Extension. We would also like to hear from you about what topics you are interested in seeing in eFields in the future.

    There is no cost to attend; for more information or to register for a meeting, visit go.osu.edu/eFieldsMeeting. Please plan to join us for the meeting nearest you:

                Southwest Region: February 13th, 9AM-12PM, Wilmington

                Northwest Region: February 20th, 9AM-12PM, Wauseon

                East Region: February 27th, 5:30-8:30PM, Massillon

                West Central Region: February 28th, 9AM-12PM, Piqua

    efeilds

  6. Intensive Soybean Management Workshop - Clinton County

    Author(s): Tony Nye

    2018 was a challenging year for soybean growers to say the least. Clinton County Extension will host an Intensive Soybean Management Workshop Tuesday, February 19, 2019 at the Clinton County Extension Community Room, 111 S. Nelson Ave., Wilmington, Ohio beginning at 9:00 AM and concluded by 3:30 PM.

    This hands-on workshop is designed to help soybean growers become better crop managers and in turn become more profitable.

    Topics will include:

    Soybean Production Management Strategies: Dr. Laura Lindsey, Soybean/Wheat Extension Specialist;

    Soybean Insect Management: Dr. Kelley Tilmon, Field Crop Extension Entomologist;

    Weed Management Update: Dr Mark Loux, Extension Weed Specialist,;

    Breaking yield barriers through soybean breeding and variety trial programs: Dr. Leah McHale, Soybean Breeding and Genetics Specialist;

    Soybean Disease Management: Dr. Anne Dorrance, Field Crop Extension Pathologist.

    In addition to the great presentations throughout the day, participants will receive a soybean management notebook that will include several useful management publications such as:

    The Ohio Agronomy Guide or Weed Control Guide, Profitable Soybean Disease Management in Ohio , Ohio Corn, Soybean, Wheat, and Alfalfa Guide, and Stink Bug of Ohio Soybean Field Guide

    Also, CCA, and Pesticide (Commercial and Private) credits have been requested.

    PRE-REGISTRATION REQUIRED. $35.00 per person. Registration deadline is Friday, February 15.

    (Includes lunch and resources) Make checks payable to The OSU Extension - Clinton.

    Mail to: Clinton County Extension Community Room, 111 S. Nelson Ave., Wilmington, OH 45177

    Questions please call Tony Nye 937-382-0901 or email nye.1@osu.edu.

    The following link will connect you to the registration flyer: https://clinton.osu.edu/sites/clinton/files/imce/Soybean%20Workshop%202019%20Clinton%20flyer.pdf

  7. Northeast Ohio Agronomy School Slated for February 20, 2019

    Author(s): Lee Beers, CCA

    The OSU Extension offices in Northeast Ohio are pleased to be offering the “2019 Northeast Ohio Agronomy School”on Wednesday, February 20, 2018 from 9:00 to 3:30 p.m. at the Bristolville Community Center located at 1864 State Route 88 in Bristolville, Ohio.  With profit margins decreasing it will be vital for crop producers to get the biggest bang from the dollars they invest in land rental, seed and fertilizer, technology, chemicals, and crop protection in 2019. A full day of topics with six different speakers has been planned for producers to learn more about the major issues impacting corn and soybean production in northeast Ohio.

    Topics include:

    New Field Crop Fertilizer Recommendations - Steve Culman,

      • This talk will highlight major changes and findings of extensive state-wide on-farm fertilizer field trials

    Stink Bug Management in Soybeans - Andy Michel

      • Dr. Michel will cover stink bug identification and management as well as tools to estimate insect defoliation in soybean.

    Preventing Waterhemp and Palmer Amaranth from Ruining Your Life - Mark Loux

      • Dr. Loux will discuss strategies to prevent waterhemp and Palmer Amaranth from becoming established in NE Ohio.

    Soybean Disease Update - Anne Dorrance

      • Dr. Dorrance will discuss diseases that are popping up in Ohio with the wet weather, and what are some new recommendations to control their spread.

    Yield Limiting Factors in Soybeans, and Agronomic Management of Barley - Laura Lindsey

      • What is holding back your soybeans from increasing yield? Dr. Lindsey will discuss how to increase your soybean yield and also talk about agronomic decisions for growing barley.

    Malting Barley in Ohio – A Growing Opportunity - Whitney Thompson

      • Origin Malt and Malting Seed Producers are excited to continue building their network of barley growers in the State of Ohio. The talk today will address information about Origin Malt, malting barley best practices and how to become a malting barley grower.

    Registration-The registration fee for this workshop is $15 per person and includes refreshments, lunch, speaker travel expenses, and program handouts.  Pre-registration is required by February 18, 2019.  Make checks payable to OSU Extension, and mail to Trumbull County Extension office, 520 West Main Street, Cortland, OH 44410. A registration flyer can be found at: trumbull.osu.edu   More information can be received by calling the Trumbull County Extension office at 330-638-6783.

  8. Cover Crop Resources from Purdue

    Purdue has recently published cover crop recipes intended to provide a starting point for farmers who are new to growing cover crops.  With experience, farmers may fine-tune the use of cover crops for their systems.  Additional Purdue resources are also listed:

    Post Soybean, Going to Corn: Use Oats/Radish (Indiana Cover Crop Recipe series, MCCC-101/AY-357-W) — available from www.mccc.msu.edu  select states/provinces, then Indiana.

    Post Corn, Going to Soybean: Use Cereal Rye (Indiana Cover Crop Recipe series, MCCC-100/AY-356-W)—available from www.mccc.msu.edu select states/provinces, then Indiana.

     Managing Cover Crops: An Introduction to Integrating Cover Crops into a Corn-Soybean Rotation (Purdue Extension publication AY-353-W

    https://extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/AY/AY-353-W.pdf

    Residual Herbicides and Fall Cover Crop Establishment (Purdue Extension Weed Science publication),  https://extension.entm.purdue.edu/newsletters/pestandcrop/article/residual-herbicides-and-fall-cover-crop-establishment/

     Terminating Cover Crops: Successful Cover Crop Termination with Herbicides (Purdue Extension publication WS-50-W), https://mdc.itap.purdue.edu/item.asp?Item_Number=WS-50-W

     Recommended Cover Crop Seeding Methods and Tools (Indiana–Agronomy Technical Note 6)—available from the USDA–Natural Resources Conservation Service,   https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/nrcs144p2_030986.pdf

  9. Northern Ohio Crops Day

    Author(s): Allen Gahler

    Northern Ohio Crops Day, held annually on the first Thursday in February at Ole Zim’s Wagon Shed near Gibsonburg, Ohio in Sandusky County is all set for another outstanding program that the progressive grain crop producer will not want to miss. 

    Thursday, February 7, 2019, the program will begin at 8:30 a.m. with a look at fungicide use in alfalfa led by Jason Hartschuh, Ag Educator in Crawford County.  Alan Sundermeier, Ag Educator in Wood County will then provide an update on the status of palmer amaranth and waterhemp in the area along with management strategies.  A discussion on temperature inversions and their impact on our spray practices will be led by OSU Extension climatologist Aaron Wilson.

             Greg Labarge, OSU Extension agronomic systems specialist will give an update on where we’ve been and what we’ve learned on Lake Erie, phosphorous, and water quality, and Andrew Kleinschmidt from OSU’s Ag Engineering department will present research findings on high speed planters and pinch row mitigation. 

    Chris Zoller, Ag Educator in Tuscarawas County will lead a discussion on financial strategies and farm management in difficult economic times, and Allen Gahler, Ag Educator in Sandusky County will present local research findings from a study analyzing the use of cover crops as forages for livestock feed. 

    CCA credits will be available.  Pesticide license holders that attend the entire program will receive 3 hours of certification including all categories, and commercial credits will be available as well. Fertilizer re-certification will be covered beginning at 1:00 p.m.  Registration is open at 8:00 a.m. with morning refreshments and time to visit with local sponsors, and the program beginning at 8:30.  Lunch will be served by the Ole Zims staff.  Sponsors include several local ag businesses, and plenty of time will be available for participants to visit their display tables.  There is a $50 registration fee for the program, which includes all certification credits, and pre-registration is required by calling the Sandusky County Extension office at 419-334-6340 or by emailing Allen Gahler at gahler.2@osu.edu

  10. Ohio Intensive Soybean Management Workshop - Hardin County

    Author(s): Mark Badertscher

    This past crop season was a good year for soybean production across the state.  The weather cooperated and yields were high.  However with the lower soybean prices, intensive management practices become more important to produce a successful crop.  Several OSU Extension state specialists will be spending the day on Thursday, February 21 in Hardin County to share information with farmers in a small group hands-on workshop being held at the OSU Extension office, 1021 W Lima Street in Kenton.  The workshop will begin at 9:00 am and conclude by 3:30 pm.  This soybean workshop is open to soybean producers from across Ohio.

    Topics and presenters for the day-long event include:

    Soybean Production Management Strategies: Dr. Laura Lindsey, Soybean/Wheat Extension Specialist;

    Soybean Weed Management Update: Dr. Mark Loux, Extension Weed Specialist;

    Soybean Disease Management: Dr. Anne Dorrance, Field Crop Extension Pathologist;

    Breaking yield barriers through soybean breeding and variety trial programs: Dr. Leah McHale, Soybean Breeding and Genetics Specialist;

    Soybean Insect Management: Dr. Kelley Tilmon, Field Crop Extension Entomologist;

    Soybean Fertility Update: Dr. Steve Culman, Soil Fertility Extension Specialist.

    In addition to the great presentations throughout the day, participants will receive a soybean management notebook that will include several useful management publications such as:

    The Ohio Agronomy Guide or Weed Control Guide, Profitable Soybean Disease Management in Ohio, Ohio Corn, Soybean, Wheat, and Alfalfa Guide, and Stink Bug of Ohio Soybean Field Guide.

    CCA and other continuing education credits are pending.

    PRE-REGISTRATION REQUIRED. $35.00 per person. Registration deadline is Thursday, February 14.  Registration is limited to 25 people.

    The following link will connect you to online registration: go.osu.edu/hardinsoybean

    (Includes lunch, books, and handouts) Make checks payable to OSU Extension – Hardin County and pay at the door.

    Questions please call Mark Badertscher at 419-674-2297 or email badertscher.4@osu.edu

About the C.O.R.N. Newsletter

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.

Contributors

Alan Sundermeier, CCA (Wood County)
Amanda Douridas (Champaign County)
Andy Michel (State Specialist, Entomology)
Chris Zoller (Tuscarawas County)
Debbie Brown, CCA (Shelby County)
Elizabeth Hawkins (Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems)
Eric Richer, CCA (Fulton County)
Garth Ruff (Henry County)
Glen Arnold, CCA (Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management )
Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA (Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems)
Jeff Stachler (Auglaize County)
Jim Noel (National Weather Service)
Lee Beers, CCA (Trumbull County )
Mark Badertscher (Hardin County)
Mark Loux (State Specialist, Weed Science)
Mike Gastier, CCA (Huron County)
Sam Custer (Darke County)
Sarah Noggle (Paulding County)
Ted Wiseman (Perry County)

Disclaimer

The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.