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Agronomic Crops Network

Ohio State University Extension


C.O.R.N. Newsletter: 2019:19

  1. From the Heart

    Author(s): Sarah Noggle

    In trying times, where do you turn?

    Farmers are some of the most humble, down to earth people I know and they thrive on being able to feed the country. The stresses these farmers and farm families are enduring and hard on everyone involved. While they know that they work in a business where risks are always present due to weather, they sometimes need support and encouragement to work through their own mental and physical stress and even fatigue during these times.  Most of the farmers live on the land they farm and don’t have the chance to get away from these stresses. Most of us that work, work at a place that when it gets stressful, we get to leave for the day.  Farmers, on the other hand, don’t usually have this option.  They live, sleep and breathe their occupation.

    There are so many decisions that farmers are making today into what this generation knows as uncharted territory.  They are worried about wet weather, how will I feed my livestock and where will my income come from?  Maybe you are a farmer reading this or maybe the farm wife, the neighbor, the family member or an agribusiness person, but one thing is for sure farmers are the heartbeat of many communities.  This week in the CORN newsletter, I am asking you who are reading it to take into account some steps outside your normal routine.

    1. Slow down and breathe - farmer, farm family or other - we live in such a fast-paced world.  There are decisions that are being made that effect so many people.  We are truly all in this together.  We need to be kind and a friend at all times.

    2. Take five minutes to take care of yourself. Depression and anxiety are real and you may seem like you can't even put one foot in front of the other today. Let me tell you something, you are valuable, you are needed and it will be okay.  Maybe not okay in the sense that you think or the direction or path that was in your "Plan A" but you will be okay. 

    3. Give a smile, hello, nod or wave to another human being.  Remember it takes more muscles to frown than it does to smile. 

    4.  If you feel these families need some extra help, reach out to your local Extension Office and they will help point you in the right direction. 

    The CORN newsletter is full of information to help in the decision process.  No, it's not all rainbows and unicorns – it is real-life decisions. Farmers, this week as you are reading the articles, remember these few things. Write down your options (the pros and cons). Talk with your local Extension Educator or call them out for a farm visit. We, at OSU Extension, are here for you. We care about you even if you have never stepped foot into our office. Our service to you is free. 

    Additionally, as you read through the articles, think about your options. When it comes to questions on prevent plant acres contact your insurance agent. Don't just assume they know your plans. This newsletter contains recommendations based on agronomic principals and potential considerations from an agricultural production perspective. If the management will be applied to crop insured acres, you should check any impact that the management change will have on current or future insurance payments and eligibility.     

    Please share this information in any way possible - forward the email, tweet the post #FarmLivesMatter, share to your non-farm friends, Snapchat it to your kids, post on Instagram, print it off and drop it at church or even the local grocery store. The agriculture community is powerful and has many opinions, stresses, and directions.  Some people have no clue what is going on in and around the agriculture world, so share with them. 

    Lastly, I am asking the community to check on your farmer neighbors and their families. Drop into the farm to check on the farmer and family. Bring them dinner but don't just drop it off actually share some time with that family. They may come up with every excuse that the house is not clean or I am too busy. Maybe even drag them to your house for dinner. They may not want you there but they need you there as their support system.  Getting a vacation from the farm is probably what many families are eliminating due to financial pressures, but human interaction is one powerful value. While a simple way to check in on farmers is a text message, texts don't work in these situations.  They need your empathy, not your sympathy. Go old school and play the board game, shut down the social media and have a conversation.  These things only cost your time. Did you ever think about giving back to those people who help feed the world? 

    Have a great week - Potentially more to come this week - Sarah Noggle, Editor

  2. Wetter than normal still favored for much of Ohio into much of July

    Weather Map
    Author(s): Jim Noel

    After a wet start to the last week of June, we will see some drying for the second half of the week. As a dome of warm air builds aloft, it will produce an above normal temperature week ahead with maximum temperatures mostly in the 80s and minimum temperatures in the 60s and 70s across the state as well.

    Look ahead to the week 2 outlook across Ohio, The NOAA Climate Prediction Center is calling for a greater chance of above normal temperatures and rainfall. This will be triggered by storms riding along the northern boundary of a very warm high-pressure system to the south of Ohio. The latest CPC week two outlooks at be found at

    Weather patternsLooking further ahead to week 3 and week 4 outlooks, odds favor a return to slightly below normal temperatures. This will be a function of below normal maximum temperatures. However, minimum temperatures will remain at or above normal due to the high soil moisture conditions and the humid airmass in place. Rainfall is continuing to lean above normal especially in the western half of the heavy agriculture areas of Ohio. See the attached images. The week 3/4 outlooks can also be found at

    The two-week average rainfall total still looks above normal as discussed above with rainfall averaging 2-4 inches across Ohio. Normal rainfall for Ohio for the two week period is 1.50-2.00 inches.

  3. 2019 Challenge: Forage Production Options for Ohio


    Across Ohio, farmers are facing challenges unimagined just four months ago.  Widespread loss of established alfalfa stands coupled with delayed or impossible planting conditions for other crops leave many farmers, their agronomists and nutritionists wondering what crops can produce reasonable amounts of quality forage yet this year. In addition, frequent and heavy rains are preventing harvest of forages that did survive the winter and are causing further deterioration of those stands.

    With July 1st just around the corner, Mark Sulc, OSU Extension Forage Agronomist and Bill Weiss, OSU Extension Dairy Nutritionist, help address this forage dilemma.  If one is looking for quality and quantity, what are your best options? The article starts with a quick summary of options and then dig into some of the pros and cons of these options (listed in no particular order of preference). 


    1. Corn plant silage– Still has the highest potential yield but silage quality will decline with delayed planting and getting it harvested at the right moisture is the biggest risk.
    2. Forage sorghum – Brown midrib (BMR) varieties are best for lactating cows. Conventional varieties are okay if BMR seed is not available.
    3. Sorghum-sudangrass - BMR varieties are best for lactating cows. Conventional varieties are okay if BMR seed is not available.
    4. Sudangrass - BMR varieties are best for lactating cows. Conventional varieties are okay if BMR seed is not available.
    5. Oat or spring triticale silage – Safer option than corn silage but lower yield than corn silage. It can be mowed and allowed to wilt to correct harvest moisture. Spring Triticale is commonly planted as a hay or haylage crop and can produce high levels of dry matter under challenging conditions. It is later maturing than oats or barley and will maintain its forage quality for an extended harvest window.
    6. Oat and Winter Rye mixed silage – Has the advantages of oat silage with a slightly higher yield in the fall and the potential for rye silage harvest in the spring.
    7. Italian Ryegrass silage – Small fall harvest with three cuttings next year starting in April.
    8. Soybean silage – If you need a replacement for alfalfa, soybean silage is a reasonable alternative.  Care must be taken with spray programs that allow harvest as a forage.
    9. Teff – Is a warm-season annual grass best suited for Sheep and Beef, lower yield than sorghum grasses despite multiple harvests being possible.
    10. Millets – Millets are a major grain crop worldwide and best suited for beef and sheep, many will produce a single harvest.
    11. Brassicas -  High in energy, but very low in fiber (more like a concentrate) with high moisture content. Only for grazing by Sheep and Beef.

    Note: These forage options all require adequate nitrogen fertilization to maximize yield potential.  Check any potential herbicide restrictions from the previously planted crop. Work with your nutritionist to incorporate these alternative forages into properly balanced rations. 

    Option 1: Corn silage

    Harvesting SilageThe biggest risk with late-planted corn is getting moisture down to a reasonable level at harvest. With current soil moisture conditions, it will be a crap shoot when many farms will be able to plant. Corn planted into July will not make corn silage as we know it because it won’t have many ears and will be low in starch. This silage will primarily be a source of fiber with potential yields about half of normal.

    Harvesting corn silage at the proper moisture will be critical to a successful fermentation (drier than 30% DM up to about 40% DM).  Before a frost, many of these plants will be about 20% DM.  Some late-planted corn may require a frost to allow the plant to dry down.  Because leaves die after frost, plants look drier than they actually are, so measuring dry matter regularly is essential.  When a plant is frosted, the window of opportunity to harvest as silage - before the plant is too dry - may be limited depending on local weather conditions.  Harvest timing is critical, so regularly monitor plant moisture post-frost and be ready to harvest when conditions are met. Another possible option for corn with no ear would be to mow at some point before a killing frost and wilt the crop to the proper dry matter before chopping and ensiling the crop.

    This high fiber feed will probably contain about 60% NDF.  Work with your nutritionist as substantial diet changes must be made. More than likely these changes will include increased feeding of corn grain.  With higher corn prices looming, this is not an attractive option, but the tradeoff is feeding more expensive hay.

    Check with seed suppliers for any seed treatment restrictions on the use of the corn seed for silage or forage when planted this late.

    Option 2-4: Forage sorghum, Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids, Sudangrasses

    Sorghum SudangrassBrown midrib (BMR) varieties are most desirable, but the seed may not be available.  If this is the case in your area, conventional varieties are your next best choice.  Plant by July 15th and plan for one cutting.  A mid-September cutting will optimize quality for milking cows.  An early October cutting will have a much higher yield, but the higher-fiber forage will be more suited for heifers, dry cows, or beef cattle. 

    Sudangrass harvested at 50 days of growth is an okay feed for dairy cattle. At a 60-day harvest range, it is more challenging to feed to dairy cows for good milk production.

    Challenges:  If the sorghums are frosted, prussic acid formation in the plant is an issue.  It can be mitigated by ensiling, but avoiding frost is the best option.

    Option 5: Oat or Spring Triticale silage

    Do not plant these for silage before the last week of July or overall yield will suffer. The overall potential yield is the lowest of the forage options.  Yields of 1.5 to 3 tons of DM per acre (about 5 to 5.5 tons at 30 to 35% DM) of chopped oat silage are possible if planted in early August.  Harvesting between late boot, or early heading, will optimize quality.

    OatsThe potential feed value of oat will be similar to mid-bloom alfalfa.  As a grass, inclusion rates in a lactating cow diet would have to go down, but it is a very acceptable feed.

    Spring Triticale is a biotype of the hybrid cross between cereal rye and wheat (there is a winter biotype that acts like winter wheat). In our research, oat averaged slightly higher fall yields than spring triticale, but this varied with season. Spring triticale yields a higher feed value similar to early mid-bloom alfalfa. Seed cost for spring triticale will be higher than oat, but it is later maturing than oat or barley and will maintain its forage quality for an extended harvest window. Spring triticale yields a higher feed value similar to early to mid-bloom alfalfa.

    These forage options all require adequate nitrogen fertilization to maximize yield potential. Check potential herbicide restrictions from the previously planted crop. Potential challenges include rust infection in damp conditions, especially with oat. Rust could impact yield and feed quality and depends on when the infection of rust occurs during the growing season.

    Option 6: Oat or Spring Triticale and Cereal Rye mixed silage

    Planting mixtures of oat or spring triticale and cereal rye will allow a fall harvest as well as a spring harvest. Note that the window for harvesting rye silage in the spring to optimize feed quality is usually very short. The rye harvested in early spring can yield 2.5 to 3 tons of DM per acre of dairy-quality forage when harvested at boot stage.  In the fall, the oat/rye or spring triticale/rye mix should yield slightly more than oat or spring triticale alone, with the potential for the spring cereal rye harvest.

    Option 7: Italian Ryegrass silage

    This crop emerges as fast as oats and could produce up to a ton of dry matter per acre in the fall if planted in August, and less yield if planted into September (it should be planted by mid-September at the latest). This crop would also be available for additional cuttings next year, starting in late April or early May and then every 25-30 days.   

    Plot work with fall harvest and three harvests the following year have shown average yields between 3 to 5 tons of dry matter from improved varieties with good winter survival and adequate moisture. It will winterkill in severe winters. Do not let a lot of growth go into the winter to avoid winter as mold growth that damages the stand. To avoid this, make a late fall cutting or graze to a height of 3 inches.  This crop will shut down by mid- to late-summer the year after a fallen establishment. 

    As a grass, harvesting earlier optimizes quality.  If planted in September and harvested in late fall, the quality will be superb (NDF 48% and Neutral Detergent Fiber digestibility (NDFd) about 80%).  August plantings harvested in late fall will not be quite as high in quality.  It will probably have protein in the mid-teens and NDF in the mid-50s.  Next year, the crop will head out quickly at each harvest. Overall it is a medium quality forage, but with proper diet, this formulation can work for lactating cows.

    Option 8: Soybeans

    Soybeans planted at this time of year and harvested as silage will yield about 2 tons of dry matter per acre (dry plants to 65 to 70% moisture before chopping).  Narrow rows will yield about 15% more than wide rows.  Harvest between R5 and R7 stage, but no later than R7 (one pod on the stem is a mature color). 

    Silage harvest will be easier than dry hay because of difficulty in getting the crop dry. Silage harvesting later creates issues with the high oil content of the beans, and more leaf shatter will inhibit a good fermentation.  Harvesting later than R5 to R7 creates an issue with the high oil content of the beans, and more leaf shatter will inhibit a good fermentation.  Feed quality would be similar to early bloom alfalfa. 

    Check seed treatment labels or ask seed suppliers for any restrictions on using soybean seed for forage, as some seed treatments may not allow it. Review any herbicides applied and see labels for restrictions before use to verify that the crop can still be used for animal feed.

    Adding an annual grass such as oats, spring triticale, or sudangrass could be a good option to lower the protein content for some classes of livestock and improve the mechanical handling of this crop.

    Option 9: Teff

    Teff is a warm-season grass that can be used for hay, silage, or pasture. The first crop should be ready in 40 to 50 days. It may produce up to 2 to 2.5 tons per acre of dry matter in multiple cuttings and can tolerate both drought-stressed and waterlogged soils.

    Cornell research showed that when teff was harvested at the proper time and sufficient N was applied, crude protein was between 15 and 16% of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) 48-hr digestibility averaged about 60%. It should be planted as soon as possible because it dies at the first frost.

    Option 10: Millets These summer annuals can be used as hay, silage, green chop, and pasture. There are varietal differences between the pearl, foxtail, proso and Japanese types. Because of evidence that Pearl Millet may cause butterfat depression in lactating dairy cows. Millet forages are better suited for beef, sheep or dairy heifer feed. 

    Option 11: Brassicas
    Turnip, swede, rape, kale, and other brassica species and hybrids are highly productive annual crops that can be grazed 80 to 150 days after seeding. When planted by early August they can extend the grazing season in November and December. They are highly digestible and crude protein levels are high, varying from 15 to 25 percent in the herbage and 8 to 15 percent in the roots depending on the level of nitrogen fertilization and weather conditions. These species contain high moisture content, so they should be used for grazing only. Brassicas have very low fiber and high energy and should be treated more like a concentrate than as forage in diets.

    References: More detailed information on many of these options including seeding rates are available in these publications:


    • BMR: Brown midrib - Brown midrib (BMR), a genetic mutation in several grassy species, reduces lignin content in the total plant parts. Lignin is mostly indigestible but also plays an important role in plant rigidity. The brown midrib trait has been incorporated into forage sorghum, sudangrass, and corn.
    • DM: Dry Matter – feedstuff sample remaining after the water is removed; 100 minus moisture % = DM %.
    • NDF: Neutral detergent fiber – a percentage of cell walls or other plants structural material present; includes cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin; only partially digested by cattle; greater NDF values are associated with less dry matter intake.
    • NDFd: Neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFd) is a measure used to improve the predicted energy value of forages. The digestibility of NDF can be measured by either In vitro or In situ methodology. Incubation times vary, although 24, 30, or 48 hours are typical times used by commercial labs. Using the amount of NDF present at the beginning of the incubation and the amount of NDF remaining at the end of the incubation, NDF digestibility is calculated (often this is called NDFd). NDFd values will vary across laboratories, as there will be differences in either rumen fluid (In vitro) or rumen environment (In situ). For this reason, it is important to compare forage reports from a single lab.
  4. Using Corn as a Cover Crop

    Silage harvest

    THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN REVISED ON 6/28/2019 AT 1:00 PM FROM ITS ORGINAL POST - Revisions and additions have been BOLDED in the article.

    Based on information from across the Corn Belt, including states where they have more experience with delayed planting of corn (University of Wisconsin - and Iowa State University -, these are our best recommendations for using corn as a cover crop.

    Although the yield potential of corn planted in July for grain and silage is very low, corn makes an excellent "emergency" forage when planted in July. Moreover, unlike some other forage crops, Ohio producers know how to grow it. We also are aware of limited seed supply for several alternatives that typically could be used. Farmers should consult with their insurance agent to see if harvesting as forage will affect any current or future insurance payments on prevented plant acres.

    As a cover crop, corn can establish a canopy rapidly. It has a deep root system that is highly effective in scavenging nutrients. Even when planted as late as July, it can produce a significant residue.  

    To optimize the use of corn as a cover crop, consider the following agronomic practices.

    1. GMO insect traits available in corn are approved for feed. Additionally, Roundup Ready and RR2, Liberty Link and Enlist as well as other herbicide traits are also feed approved. It is illegal to use traited seed harvested for grain in the prior year (i.e. bin run seed) with a transgenic hybrid (bioengineered or GMO) to plant a corn cover crop. 
    2. Plant corn at a higher seeding rate than normal: 40,000 seeds per acre or greater and in narrow rows (22-inch row spacing or less). This will promote canopy closure and result in better erosion and weed control (OSU Agronomy Guide, 15th edition - URL verified 6-25-2019).
    3. If seed is treated wth insecticide and is a replant in a field whose failed crop used the same insecticide, be aware that there are upper limits of the amount of active ingredient per field per acre per year. More information will be provided in the CORN Newsletter on July 2, 2019.
    4. Corn may be the only choice for a cover crop depending on herbicide applications earlier in the year.
    5. If corn planted in July as a cover crop produces seed, grain produced must not be harvested.
    6. Corn seeded as a cover crop on Prevented Planting acres may be hayed, grazed, or chopped on or after September 1 for 2019 - (URL verified 6-25-2019).
    7. Before grazing, check the herbicide label to ensure there are no restrictions on feeding forage to livestock.
    8. Reduce tillage as much as possible (no-tillage preferable) to ensure soil moisture necessary for germination and to reduce erosion potential while the cover crop develops.
    9. To learn about what GM traits are approved for feed (or other uses), go to the website
      1. Scroll down to advanced search then input:
      2. Crop [hint – corn is “maize” in this database]
      3. Commercial trait [for example, herbicide tolerance]
      4. Developer [use “any” for the overview, or pick a company for a specific brand]
      5. Country:  United States
      6. Type of Approval:  Feed
  5. Forage Shortage and Prevented Planting Acres… think OATS!

    Photo of oats that were planted August 5 and photographed three months later. Yield was in excess of 4 tons of dry matter grown.

    Last week, USDA released the declaration that a cover crop planted onto prevented planting acres can now be harvested as a forage after September 1st, rather than the normal date of November 1st, which provides a small glimmer of hope for some livestock producers and those equipped to harvest forages.  While Ohio is also experiencing a severe shortage of forages for all classes of livestock, weed control on prevented planting acres is a major concern, and with USDA’s declaration, we can now address both problems in one action – seeding cover crops that will be harvestable as a forage after September 1st

    As with everything else this season, however, patience is the key!  Although an ideal situation would be cover crops that can be put out immediately and reduce the need for tillage, chopping, or spraying of weeds already present, there are unfortunately not many species of cover crop that will accomplish this and still provide significant tonnage or feed quality as a forage in September.  Sorghum/Sudangrass seed is in very tight supply, soybeans as a cover may not be ideal for making hay or producing desired tonnages, and corn as a cover crop is still questionable in terms of insurance payments, and whether or not we can get it dry enough to make good silage.  Teff grass, pearl millet, and Italian ryegrass may be good options if you can locate seed and get them established, but if planted now, they may be ready for harvest prior to September 1st, and quality will be sacrificed.  Most other species of crops that fit the bill for making a good forage simply won’t work well at all if planted right now.  So, again, we wait.  But once we get to late July or early August, our options begin to open up.

    Our traditional cover crops of cereal rye, annual ryegrass, oats, peas, turnips, and other brassicas have been used by livestock producers for many years with good success at producing forages.  There are several good articles, fact sheets, and recommendations on these crops used as an annual forage following a wheat crop, or even aerial seeded into standing soybeans and corn acres available in our library at, and on the OSU Extension forage site at  With over 15  years of experience with summer planted oats under our belts, preceded by and intermixed with several years of experience with cereal rye, brassicas, and grasses, we know there's still plenty of time to 'create' anywhere from one to five tons of forages in wheat stubble or prevented plant fields. From our experiences with many operations in all parts of the state, and on our own farms in Northwest Ohio and Southeastern Ohio, oats would be the species of choice to provide the lowest input, most readily available forage, with the best chance for significant tonnage this year.

    The ideal situation is planting oats into vacant fields resulting from Prevented Planting or harvested wheat on or around August 1. Existing weeds must be controlled prior to planting with a herbicide application. With just a little moisture (no pun intended), and a small amount of nitrogen, you might be surprised at the growth you can get out of oats planted in late July or August. 

    Oat hay is an acceptable forage for all classes of livestock, and while nutrient content will vary depending on maturity at harvest, we have repeatedly seen oats harvested at 60 days of growth with crude protein levels from 12-19%, and digestible organic matter as high as 65%.  If you are looking to make dry hay, it can be a challenge in late September or October, often requiring 5-7 days after being cut, but it is certainly possible, and small amounts of rain during the dry down process will not deteriorate this forage nearly as rapidly as alfalfa and other grasses.   If you do not get that window to cut them for dry hay, it may cost a little more, but having the oats wet-wrapped beats the alternative of having no hay available, and your cows, goats, and sheep will literally run you over to get to it once you start feeding it! 

    There are some options on oats as far as what to plant, including forage type oats that are bred specifically for forage production, bin run oats that may be harvested locally or around Ohio yet this summer, or feed oats that are likely shipped in from Canada and used in many of our livestock rations at co-ops all around the state.   Depending on your goal, all three sources of seed will work.  If you are feeding dairy cows or maybe even looking at horse quality hay, forage oats will be more expensive, but are likely the best option, as nutrient levels tend to be higher, given the later maturity of the plant and the lower likelihood of the plant trying to form a seedhead.  Fungus issues in the form of rust are about the only major issue we see in any type of oats seeded for forage, but the varieties bred for forage production are generally less susceptible, helping keep these more palatable as hay.  If you plan to use this option, contact your seed dealers ASAP to check on availability.

    If you are simply looking for the cheapest and easiest source of seed, and are not as concerned about germination, seed quality, or foreign material in your seed, then locally produced oats are your best option.  Be aware that many oats were planted late this year, may not yield as much as needed, and likely will have significant weed seed in them at harvest, so cleaning would be a must, or we lose sight of the original intent of covering the ground on prevented plant acres.

    The final option of utilizing feed grade oats as the seed is likely the most realistic and economical option.  First off, most feed oats have come from Canada, where production has not been an issue, and we have not talked to any co-op or feed mill that has any indication of a tightening supply or major cost increase.  Feed oats are usually triple-cleaned to provide horse quality feed, so weed seeds should not be present, and you can likely buy these in bulk from your local co-op for $15-22/hundred weight. 

    Once you have obtained a source of seed that is right for you, the establishment is usually pretty simple: No-till 60-90 pounds into harvested wheat fields, or prevented plant fields anytime from late July up until early September. It appears that late July or early August may be the optimum time to plant oats when high-quality forage is the goal. "Spring" oats seldom make seed when planted after the days begin to shorten in July, but will continue to grow leaf until Thanksgiving or after in Ohio. Consider applying 40-50 units of nitrogen about 60 days before you plan to harvest them, regardless of the harvest method for optimal nitrogen use.  Common scenarios for this include broadcasting urea ahead of the drill, mixing UAN 28% with roundup if a burndown is needed, or applying ammonium sulfate after germination.  Conventional till planting scenarios have worked as well and could be required this year depending on weed control up until planting time, but typically drier conditions make germination and early growth slightly less productive with oats. 

    While many of the hardest hit portions of Northwest Ohio may not even have their own livestock or be considering grazing options, it could be relevant in some areas where fences exist around prevented plant acres, and some of these areas could also have the need for spring forages. 

    If your primary needs are forage for grazing, hay, or silage next spring, cereal rye appears to be the best alternative. The opportunity exists to graze it in the late summer and fall, however, the most abundant tonnage will come in the spring. In addition to planting it with the options mentioned above for oats, you may also no-till it after row crop harvest - particularly soybeans and silage corn - this fall.

    If your primary needs are grazeable forages as soon as possible, consider turnips or a combination of oats and turnips. Previous summers we've seen good results locally when planting a 'grazing turnip' such as Appin in combination with oats. If some precipitation is received shortly after planting, this combination could be strip grazed as early as 5-6 weeks after planting. The oats will provide some additional fiber in this grazing mix, and the Appin turnips will continue to regrow after being topped off with early grazing.

    As you review your options, realize that at times seed oats are difficult to purchase this time of year. Contact the Ohio Seed Improvement Association or visit for a list of growers who may have seed oats available. If you take the opportunity to try any of these extended grazings or forage production alternatives, please keep us updated on your progress and success.  We hope to be able to follow along with some real-time updates through the summer and fall with the status of cover crop forage plantings, and we also have plans to seed trials at the North Central Agricultural Research station near Fremont that will evaluate seeding dates, variety of oats, and possibly the benefits of a fungicide application on oats planted for forage.  Many fact sheets and articles are available on these forages at your local extension office, the OSU Beef team website, the OSU Forage team website, or at

    If you have questions or would like further information, feel free to contact Allen at the Sandusky County office 419-334-6340 or, or Stan at the Fairfield County office 740-653-5419 or


  6. How to differentiate flooding injury from root rots in 2019

    Wilted Yellow Seedling
    Author(s): Anne Dorrance

    A month or summer’s worth of rain has fallen in many areas of Ohio in June – and we aren’t even finished planting.  Many fields that were planted were under water last week.  Fortunately,Root cortical tissue is missing and roots are white the sunny weekend, (finally) kept the waters moving so the plants may be set back a bit.  Symptoms of seedling blight and root rot typically begin a week after these rains, but flooding injury is going to be very apparent in the next few days as the warm temperatures hit many fields.

    Under these conditions, flood injured plants will wilt, but if the roots were not infected, they will recover in a few days as new roots begin to form.  Once these plants are removed the soil and the roots can breathe again, they will form new secondary roots and the plants will recover.  You can collect some of these symptomatic plants, wrap the roots in a damp paper towel for a couple of days and then see if new roots grow or the plants continue to decline.

    Another key symptom to differentiate between flood injured and root rots is the color of the center of the root, the root stele in botanical terms.  On flood injured plants the outside rows of cells die and can be easily pulled off, leaving almost a mouse tail appearance to the roots (Figure 1).  A root rot from Pythium, Phytophthora, Fusarium will turn brown and sometimes soft and easily crushed.  Flooding injury, even on a young seedling, the root stele is still tough, almost like a toothpick.  I am expecting the reports of root rots to start soon, but we had good seed treatment packages on most of the seed, and much of these rains fell during the time period that those fungicides should have been active.  This is what I have observed in our own studies to date but more time will tell.

    Flooding can be very severe, where substantial ponding occurred there are no plants at all and the field smells.  This is where the carbon dioxide built up and basically smothered every living thing including plants.  The best advice for these fields – give some more time before you look at them.  The cool nights predicted for the coming week will give the plants that are just injured to recover, and then you will know if it was a disease or just an injury. 

  7. Wet Weather and Soybean Stand

    Saturated soils after soybean planting can cause uneven emergence and stand reductions of varying extent depending on the stage of the soybean plant and other environmental factors including temperature and duration of saturated conditions. Additionally, increased disease incidence may further reduce plant stand.

    Saturated Soil Prior to Germination: While soil moisture is necessary for germination, soybean seeds will not germinate when soils are saturated because oxygen is limiting.

    Saturated Soil during Germination: Saturated soils during soybean germination may cause uneven emergence. In a laboratory study, soybean germination was reduced by ~15% after only one hour of flood conditions (Wuebker et al., 2001). After 48 hours of flood conditions, soybean germination was reduced 33-70% depending on when imbibition (seed taking up water) began relative to the flooding conditions. Practically, for Ohio, this means if soybean seeds were further along in the germination process when flooding occurred, the seeds will be more susceptible to flooding stress.


    Saturated Soil during Vegetative Stage: Warmer temperatures will cause soybean plants to die faster. At temperatures, 80 degrees and greater, submerged soybean plants will likely due in 24 to 48 hours. However, cool, cloudy days (…and we’ve had plenty this year) and clear nights increase the survival potential of a flooded soybean crop. Flooded plants may also exhibit poor nodulation, resulting in yellow, stunted plants.

    Evaluate Stand: To quickly estimate stand, count the number of plants in 69’8” of the row for 7.5-inch row spacing, 34’10” for 15-inch row spacing, or 17’5” of the row for 30-inch row spacing. These counts represent 1/1000th of an acre (i.e., 120 plants in 7.5-inch row spacing = 120,000 plants/acre).

    Keep in mind, the effect of plant population on yield is very small over the normal range of seeding rates. For soybeans planted in May, final populations of 100,000 to 120,000 plants/acre are generally adequate for maximum economic return. For example, in our seeding rate trials in Clark County, 100% yield (77 bu./acre) was achieved with a final plant stand of 125,000 plants/acre. However, a 95% yield (73 bu./acre) was achieved with only 77,000 plants/acre. (This trial was planted the second half of May in 15-inch row width.)


    Wuebker, E.F., R.E. Mullen, and K. Koehler. 2001. Flooding and temperature effects on soybean germination. Crop Sci. 41:1857-1861.

  8. Cover Crops for Prevented Planting Acres at ONU Thursday, June 27

    Author(s): Mark Badertscher

    Do you have questions about what cover crops should be used on Prevented Planting acres?  Do you have concerns about weed control for unplanted fields?  What are the rules regarding crop insurance and planting forages to be used for grazing, cutting, and haying for livestock?  Get these and other questions answered this Thursday, June 27.  The Ohio No-Till Council, in cooperation with OSU Extension, will host a meeting at Ohio Northern University Mcintosh Center in Ada.  The address is 402 West College Avenue, Ada, Ohio 45810.  The meeting will be from 6:30 to 9:00 pm and will be free to attend.

    Weed control is critical on Prevented Planting acres will be the topic of Jeff Stachler, OSU Extension Auglaize County, who will address options at this time.  Brad Wingfield, Wingfield Crop Insurance Service will discuss crop insurance issues.  Joe Nester, Nester Ag Management will address why cover crops should be planted to help bring up nutrients from deep in the soil to replace nutrients washed out by all this rain.  Sarah Noggle, OSU Extension, Paulding County will make available resources for dealing with stress.

    Three cover crop experts, suppliers in Ohio, will keynote the agenda: David Brandt (Walnut Creek Seeds), Dwight Clary (Clary Farms LLC), and Cody Beacom (Bird Agronomics).  Moderator of this Panel will be Alan Sundermeier, OSU Extension, Wood County. 

    Resource people who will be available to answer your questions include:

    • A representative from USDA-FSA: Anita Green, Auglaize County
    • A representative from Dekalb Asgrow, Bayer: Brad Miller
    • A representative from Stewart Seeds:  Justin Petrosino
    • A representative from USDA-NRCS: Jim Hoorman, soil health.

    The focus of the meeting will be on cover crop options: What will be your next cash crop?  Do you want to graze or harvest forage?  This can now be done starting on September 1.  When can (or should) you plant certain cover crop mixes?  How can we replace nutrients lost with all the rain?  What cover crop seeds are available?  Can the leftover soybean seed be used?  How much can you afford?  Other than for grazing/forage, maybe $20/acre?

    Questions and discussion by Bret Margraf, Seneca Conservation District, and Jan Layman, President of Ohio No-Till Council. Groups will help lead discussions so everyone gets their questions and issues brought up.  We expect to have a lot of expertise in the audience.


Crop Observation and Recommendation Network

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.


Aaron Wilson (Byrd Polar & Climate Research Center)
Allen Gahler (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Amanda Bennett (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Amanda Douridas, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Andrew Holden (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Andy Michel (State Specialist, Entomology)
Ann Chanon (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Anne Dorrance (State Specialist, Soybean Diseases)
Ben Brown (Farm Management Program Mgr, Program Manager)
Bruce Clevenger, CCA (Field Specialist, Farm Management)
Chris Zoller (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Clint Schroeder (Program Manager)
Dean Kreager (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Dean Kreager (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Elizabeth Hawkins (Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems)
Eric Richer, CCA (Field Specialist, Farm Management)
Garth Ruff (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Glen Arnold, CCA (Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management )
Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA (Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems)
Jason Hartschuh, CCA (Field Specialist, Dairy & Precision Livestock)
Jennifer Andon (Program Manager, Pesticide Safety Education Program)
John Barker (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
John Fulton (State Specialist, Precision Agriculture)
Kelley Tilmon (State Specialist, Field Crop Entomology)
Ken Ford (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Laura Lindsey (State Specialist, Soybean and Small Grains)
Lee Beers, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Les Ober, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Mark Loux (State Specialist, Weed Science)
Mark Sulc (State Specialist, Forage Production)
Mike Estadt (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Mike Gastier, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Peter Thomison (State Specialist, Corn Production)
Pierce Paul (State Specialist, Corn and Wheat Diseases)
Sam Custer (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Sarah Noggle (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Stan Smith (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Stephanie Karhoff, CCA (Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems)
Ted Wiseman (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Tony Nye (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Wayne Dellinger, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)


The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

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