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C.O.R.N. Newsletter: 2022-41

  1. Weather Update: More Active Pattern Sets in for December

    Author(s): Aaron Wilson

    mapSummary

    Preciptation has increased a bit across the state in recent weeks, ending what was a very dry stretch this fall (Figure 1). Observations indicate 1.5-2 inches have fallen across NW Ohio and in couties just to the southeast of about I-71. Still, about 73% of the state is in abnormally dry to moderate drought according to the latest U.S. Drought Monitor. Temperatures overall are averaging about normal across the southern half of the state and 1-3°F above average across the north, with the typical late fall oscillation between mild and chilly air. For the latest up-to-date conditions, seasonal outlooks, and monthly climate summaries, please visit the State Climate Office of Ohio.

     

    Forecast

    Day 11 image not available

    The first in a series of storms this week will be on-going Tuesday morning. Periods of rain showers are expected across the state through Wednesday morning then again Thursday afternoon through Friday night. Temperatures over this stretch will start out with highs in the 40s and 50s, cooling off into the 30s and 40s for the weekend. Another system will start to impact Ohio by Sunday afternoon into Monday. Overall, the Weather Prediction Center is currently forecasting 0.50 (north)-2.00 (south) of precipitation across Ohio this week (Figure 2).

    The Climate Prediction Center’s 8-14-day outlook for the period of December  13 – 19, 2022 and the 16-Day Rainfall Outlook from NOAA/NWS/Ohio River Forecast Center have temperatures near to above normal and precipitation leaning wetter than normal (Figure 3). Climate averages include a high-temperature range of 42-46°F, a low-temperature range of 26-30°F, and average weekly total precipitation of 0.55-0.85 inches.

    Figure 3) Climate Prediction Center 8-14 Day Outlook valid for December 13 - 19, 2022, for left) temperatures and right) precipitation. Colors represent the probability of below, normal, or above normal conditions.

     

  2. Giant Ragweed Still Looms Large

    Author(s): Alyssa Essman

    Each fall just before harvest, the OSU weed science program conducts a statewide driving survey evaluating the frequency and distribution of problematic weed species in Ohio. Diagonal transects are driven through the top 45-50 soybean producing counties. Visual ratings are given for ten weed species in each soybean field encountered. The weeds evaluated during this survey were: marestail, giant ragweed, common ragweed, waterhemp, Palmer amaranth, redroot pigweed, volunteer corn, common lambsquarters, grasses/foxtail spp., and velvetleaf. In 2022 over 4200 fields were surveyed. Roughly 57% of fields were clean, or at least free of the ten weeds evaluated. The most common weed in 2022 was giant ragweed, present in 12% of fields when combined across rating levels. Waterhemp was the second most frequent weed, in 11% of fields, followed by marestail in 10% of fields. Grass/foxtail spp. were found in 9% of fields and volunteer corn in 8% of fields.

    Giant ragweed continues to be one of the most common and troublesome weeds in Ohio. It has a fast growth rate and is an extremely competitive plant. One of the first weeds to emerge each spring, giant ragweed can germinate through early summer. Continuous no-till practices and comprehensive herbicide programs can reduce populations over time. Ohio giant ragweed populations have been identified with resistance to group 2 (ALS inhibitors) and group 9 (glyphosate) herbicides, and multiple resistance to both group 2 and 9 herbicides. Resistance to these herbicides decreases control options for giant ragweed, especially in non-GMO soybeans. Effective giant ragweed control programs include a combination of herbicide modes of action and both pre- and postemergence applications. Weed scientists from OSU, Purdue, and across the corn belt have some general recommendations for management of giant ragweed:

    • Effective burndowns reduce giant ragweed pressure at the time of planting. Examples of effective burndowns include a group 4 (2,4-D or dicamba) herbicide plus either a group 9 (glyphosate) or 22 (paraquat) herbicide. Check labels for restrictions on plant-back intervals for 2,4-D and dicamba.
    • An effective residual product with the burndown application or at plant can reduce population pressure through the time of the post application. Full rates of chlorimuron or cloransulam (group 2) containing products tend to be most effective. Where giant ragweed is resistant to group 2 herbicides, fomesafen (group 14) can be used, but can be more variable and will restrict fomesafen use postemergence.
    • Giant ragweed will likely require multiple postemergence applications. Two pass programs should include an initial application based on weed size followed by a second application 3-4 weeks later.
    • Soybeans tolerant to glufosinate, dicamba, or 2,4-D can receive applications of these herbicides postemergence. Glufosinate followed by glufosinate is an option in the LibertyLink system. In the Xtend or Enlist systems, the second application may need be a group 14 herbicide (or glufosinate for Enlist) based on label restrictions for application timings.
    • In non-GMO soybean production, group 14 herbicides (fomesafen, lactofen) can be used postemergence. Control can be variable and overuse increases selection pressure for resistance. OSU research has shown that fomesafen followed by lactofen 3-4 weeks later is the most effective approach.

    For more recommendations regarding the management of giant ragweed, visit the Management of Herbicide-Resistant Giant Ragweed fact sheet or the Giant ragweed section in the “Control of Problem Weeds” portion of the Weed Control Guide [ANR-789].

    A huge thanks goes to Tony Dobbels, Anna Skubon, and Axle who spent a great deal of time this fall looking at soybean fields. The 2022 survey would not have happened without this crew!

  3. 2022 Ohio Soybean Performance Trials - Yield Results Available Online as Sortable Tables

    2022 OSU Soybean Performance Trials

    The 2022 Ohio Soybean Performance Trials is now available online at: https://ohiocroptest.cfaes.osu.edu/soy2022/default.asp The web-based version of the trial data includes sortable tables, and the information can also be downloaded as a spreadsheet.

    The purpose of the Ohio Soybean Performance Trials is to evaluate soybean varieties for yield and other agronomic characteristics. This evaluation gives soybean producers comparative information for selecting the best varieties for their unique production systems. Soybean varieties were tested in six Ohio counties: Henry, Sandusky, Mercer, Union, Preble, and Clinton. Varieties were grouped, tested, and analyzed by maturity (early and late). Conventional (non-GMO), RoundUp Ready, Enlist, XtendFlex, sulfonylurea-tolerant, and Liberty Link/Glyphosate tolerant were tested in the same block to allow for head-to-head comparisons.

    This year, we tested 128 commercially available soybean varieties representing 17 brands. Yields were as high as 106.5 bu/acre in Henry County (mid-May planting date and 8 inches of rainfall in August) and as low as 23.3 bu/acre in Union County (June planting date and dry conditions).

  4. Ohio Corn Performance Test (OCPT) – 2022 Results Available

    A group of bats in a treeDescription automatically generated with low confidenceThe purpose of the Ohio Corn Performance Test (OCPT) is to evaluate corn hybrids for grain yield and other important agronomic characteristics. Results of the test can assist farmers in selecting hybrids best suited to their farming operations and production environments as well as recommendations made by seed companies and breeding programs.

    Results for the 2022 Ohio Corn Performance Test are available, you can access results by selecting any of the three test regions on the left side of the webpage (Southwestern/West Central/Central, Northwestern, North Central/Northeastern): https://ohiocroptest.cfaes.osu.edu/corntrials/ or access a copy of the PDF full report here.

    Yields varied across the state depending on rainfall distribution, timing, and total precipitation. Despite fluctuating temperatures and variable precipitation during grain fill, OCPT yields exceeded expectations. Averaged across hybrid entries in the early- and full-season tests, yields were 270 Bu/A in the Southwestern/West Central/Central region, 252 Bu/A in the Northwestern region, and 261 Bu/A in the North Central/Northeastern region. Yields at individual test sites, averaged across hybrid entries in the early- and full-season tests, ranged from 226 Bu/A at Van Wert to 278 Bu/A at Upper Sandusky. The Van Wert test site was especially dry in late June/early July and averaged lower yields than other test locations. The precipitation timing and totals were extremely variable across the state throughout the growing season. Lodging was largely absent across locations, except at Upper Sandusky where some hybrids lodged because of strong winds in early November. Detailed weather results from all locations will be added to the OCPT website in the coming weeks.

    Corn hybrids differ considerably in yield potential, standability, maturity, and other agronomic characteristics that affect profitable crop production. Hybrid selection should be based on proven performance from multiple test locations and years.

  5. Early Bird Deadline Approaching for Ohio Organic Grains Conference

    Weed zapping to control weeds in no-till organic soybeans
    Author(s): Eric Richer, CCA

    This Friday, December 9th, is the deadline for early bird registration for the Ohio Organic Grains Conference www.go.osu.edu/organicgrainsreg. The event will be held in Archbold, OH on January 4-5, 2023. If you have been thinking about ways to take your farm in a different direction—specifically, USDA-certified organic grain production—you may want to consider this in-person conference positioned uniquely in the tri-state region (Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan). Keynote speakers will include Joel Gruver, Western Illinois University, and Lea Vereecke, Rodale Institute. Key topics will include crop rotations for organic systems, weed control, getting nitrogen to your crop, no-till organic soybeans, and organic grain marketing. A complete list of topics, speakers, and exhibitors is included in the registration link above. The conference is intended for current, transitioning and new-to organic grain farmers, crop consultants, agency personnel, input suppliers, and grain buyers.

    Early Bird registration is $90 for both days ($60 for a single day) and due by December 9th, 2022. After December 9th, registration increases to $120 for both days ($80 for a single day). Student (high school and college) Early Bird rates are

    $65 for both days ($40 for a single day). After December 9th, student rate increases to $90 for both days ($65 for a single day). Registration is online only at www.go.osu.edu/organicgrainsreg.

    For those staying overnight, Sauder Heritage Inn is the conference hotel. Rooms are available until December 9th, 2022. Hotel stay includes a hot breakfast. Book directly by calling (800) 590-9755.

    Questions related to this event can be directed to Eric Richer, OSU Extension, richer.5@osu.edu and/or Maddie

    Newcomb Newcomb.84@osu.edu or by calling 419-337-9210.

     

Crop Observation and Recommendation Network

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.

Contributors

Aaron Wilson (Byrd Polar & Climate Research Center)
Alyssa Essman (State Specialist, Weed Science)
Amanda Douridas, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Amber Emmons, CCA (Water Quality Extension Associate)
Curtis Young, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Don Hammersmith (Program Assistant, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Eric Richer, CCA (Field Specialist, Farm Management)
Gigi Neal (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Glen Arnold, CCA (Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management )
Horacio Lopez-Nicora (State Specialist, Soybean Pathology)
Laura Lindsey (State Specialist, Soybean and Small Grains)
Mike Gastier, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Osler Ortez (State Specialist, Corn & Emerging Crops)
Trevor Corboy (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)

Disclaimer

The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

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