C.O.R.N. Newsletter: 2023-03
Weather Update: January 2023 - A Month of Soil Moisture RechargeAuthor(s): Aaron Wilson
Did it feel like winter was largely absent during January? If so, you are not alone, and we have the climate statistics to prove it. Figure 1 shows that much of the state will end the month with temperatures about 10°F above the long-term average (1991-2020). This places January 2023 in the top 5 warmest Januarys on record for many cities across the state. It was also a wet month, with precipitation running 125-200% of normal. Frequent systems, typical of the La Niña weather pattern we are in, helped recharge soil moisture and elevate stream flows across the state. With the lack of cold weather and wet conditions, muddy conditions are now being felt by many across Ohio.
Figure 1: (left) Departure from 1991-2020 normal temperatures and (right) percent of normal precipitation for January 2023. Figure courtesy of the Midwestern Regional Climate Center.
This week will feature a much colder and overall drier pattern for Ohio. Chilly conditions will be in place for Tuesday and Wednesday with highs generally in the 20s and overnight lows in the teens. After a brief warm up into the 30s on Thursday, cold air will punch south again for Friday with highs only in the teens and 20s and overnight lows in the single digits and teens across the state. Another warm up is expected heading into the upcoming weekend. After a bit of wintry mix across southern counties on Tuesday, the next chance of rain and/or snow will arrive on Sunday. Overall, the Weather Prediction Center is currently forecasting less than 0.10” statewide over the next 7 days.
Figure 2). Precipitation forecast from the Weather Prediction Center for 7pm Monday January 30 – 7pm Monday February 6, 2022.
Heading into the second week in February, guidance from the Climate Prediction Center and the 16-Day Rainfall Outlook from NOAA/NWS/Ohio River Forecast Center show temperatures and precipitation are likely to remain above average. Climate averages include a high-temperature range of 35-40°F, a low-temperature range of 18-23°F, and average weekly total precipitation of ~0.65 inches. February’s outlook is similar, with above normal temperatures and precipitation likely to stick around throughout the month with short periods of colder air.
Figure 3) Climate Prediction Center 8-14 Day Outlook valid for February 7 - 13, 2023, for left) temperatures and right) precipitation. Colors represent the probability of below, normal, or above normal conditions.
Sampling Corn Grain for VomitoxinAuthor(s): Pierce Paul
Moldy grain and vomitoxin levels vary considerably within the grain lot. This is largely because the number of ears infected with Gibberella zeae, the fungus that causes Gibberella ear rot and produces vomitoxin in the grain, and number of infected kernels on a given ear within a field are highly variable. In addition, ears, and kernels with a similar appearance in terms of surface moldiness may have vastly different levels of internal fungal colonization, and consequently, different levels of vomitoxin contamination. In addition, pockets of warm, humid area in the grain lot coupled with moldy grain may lead to vomitoxin “hot spots” that can affect vomitoxin test results if sampling is inadequate. This may lead to price discounts or rejection of grain lots that are less contaminated than test results suggest, or conversely, acceptance of lots that are more contaminated than indicated by the results. For instance, if a single sample is drawn and the location from which it is drawn happens to be a hot-spot, then the overall level of contamination of the lot will be overestimated. Conversely, if the sample misses the hot spots completely, vomitoxin contamination may be underestimated. A single sample is never sufficient when testing grain for vomitoxin or other mycotoxins.
Accurate testing depends on thorough and appropriate sampling and sample processing. Guidelines for grain sampling, based on research with scabby wheat and barley, are available from the United States Dept. of Agriculture Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA). To collect a representative grain sample, 5-10 samples should be randomly collected from multiple locations in the bin or truckload. Samples taken only from the bottom, central or outer portions of the load or from the beginning and end of the grain stream will not provide an accurate estimate of toxin contamination of the lot. This is largely because lightweight, heavily contaminated kernels often end at the top of the pile/load and contaminated fines and dust settle at the bottom during transport and other forms of grain movement. For end-gate sampling, samples should be drawn from the entire width and depth of the grain stream. For sampling with hand or mechanical probes, multiple samples should be drawn from throughout the bin or truck, along an “X”-shaped pattern, for example. Once samples are obtained, bulked, and cleaned, the grain must be thoroughly mixed and ground uniformly, in a clean grinder, to resemble flour. Finer particle size increases surface area of the grain and enables efficient extraction of vomitoxin.
Source: modified from the following factsheet: https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/plpath-cer-04.
Cover Crop Management SeminarAuthor(s): Mark Badertscher, Randall Reeder
Cody Beacom and Jim Hoorman are the headline speakers for a Cover Crop Management three-hour morning program presented by the Ohio No-Till Council, Hardin County OSU Extension, and The Nature Conservancy. The event will be held at the Plaza Inn Restaurant, 491 S Main Street, Mt. Victory, starting at 9:00 am on Friday, February 10. Coffee and cake will be provided by Wingfield Crop Insurance Service starting at 8:30 am.
Cody Beacom, Bird Agronomics, will explain the basics of cover crops, from the selection of the best mix for summer or fall seeding to managing in the spring, whether using a burndown herbicide, “planting green”, or using a roller crimper.
A cover crops expert panel consisting of Jan Layman, Hardin County farmer and president of the Ohio No-till Council; Cody Beacom, Bird Agronomics; and Matt Burkholder, Farmer Advocate for Conservation; will answer questions and concerns from the audience.
Jim Hoorman, Hoorman Soil Health Services, will present details regarding the nutrient and soil health benefits of cover crops.
Lunch will be provided at noon by The Nature Conservancy and the Farmer Advocate for Conservation program. The program is free and limited to 50 participants. Pre-registration is required at http://go.osu.edu/covercrop2023 or by calling OSU Extension, Hardin County at 419-674-2297 by February 3.
REDMINDER: Join Us for the 3rd Annual Virtual Corn College and Soybean SchoolAuthor(s): Laura Lindsey, Amanda Douridas, CCA, Taylor Dill
Due to popular demand, the AgCrops Team will host the 3rd annual virtual Corn College and Soybean School on February 10, 2023 from 9:00 AM – 4:00 PM featuring your OSU Extension state specialists and soil fertility guest speaker, Dr. Kurt Steinke, from Michigan State University. CCA CEUs will be available during the live presentations.
To register, please go to: go.osu.edu/cornsoy. Please register by February 9 at noon. There is a $10 registration fee for this event, which goes directly to support OSU AgCrops Team activities.
Presentations will be recorded and uploaded to the AgCrops Team YouTube channel after the event (https://www.youtube.com/c/OSUAgronomicCrops). However, CCA CEUs will not be available for the recorded presentations.
MORNING SESSION 9:00-noon
9:00-9:40 Osler Ortez Corn Management for 2023
9:50-10:30 Laura Lindsey Soybean Management for 2023
10:40-11:20 Kurt Steinke (MSU) Soil Fertility
11:20-noon Mark Loux Weed Management
AFTERNOON SESSION 1:00-4:00
1:00-1:40 Kelley Tilmon Soybean Insect Management
1:50-2:30 Andy Michel Corn Insect Management
2:40-3:20 Pierce Paul Corn Disease Management
3:20-4:00 Horacio Lopez-Nicora Soybean Disease Management
Northwest Ohio Agronomy DayAuthor(s): Alan Leininger
Henry County will be hosting the 2023 Northwest Ohio Agronomy Crops Day on February 8th, 2023. This year’s event will feature Dr. Pierce Paul, Professor and Associate Chair in the Department of Plant Pathology at the Ohio State University. He will be presenting on the topic of Development and Management of Ear Rots, Mycotoxins, and Tar Spot. Also featured is Dr. Laura Lindsay, Associate Professor in the Department of Horticulture & Crop Science at Ohio State University. She will be presenting the topic of Soybean Planting Date and Management Interactions. Aaron Wilson, Assistant Professor, Ag Weather and Climate Field Specialist for Ohio State University Extension & State Climatologist of Ohio will present an Agricultural Weather & Climate Update.
Other Speakers include Sarah Noggle on Livestock & Forage Pest Update, Alan Leininger discussing Grain Management & Fumigation, Dr. Erdal Ozkan, Professor, Department of Food, Agriculture, & Biological Engineering at Ohio State University presenting sprayer nozzle selection, and Glen Arnold, Professor and Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management, Ohio State University Extension, will be sharing his work in manure management including applying swine manure in corn.
The event will be located at the Bavarian Haus 3814 OH-18, Deshler, OH 43516. The program will begin at 8:00am with registration and conclude around 4:00pm. We will be offering Ohio private fertilizer & pesticide applicator credits, commercial pesticide credits, as well as Certified Crop Advisor credits. Registration is $45 which includes a catered meal by the Bavarian Haus, and all take home materials. Registration is due by February 3rd, but we will accept late registrations as long as space permits for $55. We hope that we will see you there. Registration Link is: go.osu.edu/henryanr2023. Contact Alan Leininger at the Henry County Extension Office for more information: firstname.lastname@example.org / (419) 592-0806
Hot Topics in Grain Crops SeriesAuthor(s): Ed Lentz, CCA
The Ohio State University Extension – Hancock County office will be offering its Hot Topics in Grain Crops Series over three evenings in February and March at the Hancock County Agricultural Service Center, 7868 CR 140, Findlay, OH 45840. Each meeting will cover one specific crop – wheat, corn, and soybean. Local research results and a discussion on upcoming production issues will be presented at the meeting. There will also be a Question-and-Answer period to address any issue concerning that crop which was not part of the presentation. The programs will be led by Dr. Edwin Lentz, who has a doctorate in Crop Management and Physiology and has been providing agronomic expertise to Ohio farmers for over 30 years. Programs are free but please register by calling the Hancock County Extension office, 419-422-3851 or email email@example.com at least one day before the program. Program details are given below:
- February 21, 6:30 – 8:00 p.m. Hot Topics in Wheat Production. Local research will be presented on nitrogen and sulfur management. State research updates on disease management including fungicides for head scab.
- February 28, 6:30 – 8:00 p.m. Hot Topics in Corn Production. Local research will be presented on nitrogen extenders, nitrogen fixing products and other biologicals. State research updates on managing tar spot and mycotoxins from gibberellin ear rot.
- March 23, 6:30 – 8:00 p.m. Hot topics in Soybean Production. Local research will be presented on fungicide for plant health and waterhemp weed survey. State research updates on planting date for larger yields and other production issues.
Crop Observation and Recommendation Network
C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.
The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.
CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.