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Ohio State University Extension

CFAES

C.O.R.N. Newsletter: 2023-23

  1. Options for Short Season Summer Fall Forages

    Short-season forages planted in late summer can be sources of highly digestible fiber in ruminant livestock rations. There are several excellent forage options that can be considered for no-till or conventional tillage plantings in the late summer or early fall planting window. These forages can be a planned component of the overall forage production plan. They can be utilized on land that would otherwise sit idle until next spring, such as following wheat or an early corn silage harvest.

    Oat or Spring Triticale silage
    These cereal forages can be planted for silage beginning the last week of July and into early September. Dry matter yields of 1.5 to 3 tons per acre (about 5 to 5.5 tons at 30 to 35% DM) of chopped silage or Baleage are possible if planted in late July to early August. Harvesting between late boot, or early heading, will optimize quality. Yields will be lower for plantings made in early September, in which case late autumn grazing would be a more viable option. Our research utilizing oats planted on September 1st versus September 15th showed about a one-ton difference in yield.

    Liquid manures, if available, can make a very economical source of nitrogen for these late-planted oats. While earlier planting dates of oats have seen yields plateau with about 100 pounds of nitrogen, our later planting in September has seen significant yield increases at the 138- and 184-pound nitrogen treatments. These September plantings are often not ready for harvest until after a killing frost.  

    The potential feed value of oat silage can be similar to mid-bloom alfalfa.  As a grass, maximum inclusion rates in diets for animals with high nutritional demand (e.g. lactating cows) are less than those for alfalfa, but it is a very acceptable feed.

    Spring triticale is a biotype of the hybrid cross between cereal rye and wheat (there is also a winter biotype that acts like winter wheat). In our research, oat averaged slightly higher fall yields than spring triticale, but this varied across years. If cut at the proper maturity, spring triticale forage has a higher feed value than oat, similar to early-bloom alfalfa. Seed cost for spring triticale is usually higher than oat, but it is later maturing than oat or barley and will maintain its forage quality for an extended harvest window.

    About 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre will be needed to optimize yield potential of these cereal forages following wheat when planted in late July early August. Following corn silage harvest, and especially if manure is applied before planting the short-season forage, there likely will be no need for additional nitrogen application.

    Check herbicide rotation restrictions from the previously planted crop. Other potential challenges include rust infection, especially with oat. Rust could impact yield and feed quality, depending on when during the growing season infection occurs. Our research has shown a significant yield and quality advantage to treating July and early August planted oat with a fungicide to control rust.

    Oat or Spring Triticale and Winter Cereal Mixed Silage
    Planting mixtures of oat or spring triticale with cereal rye, winter wheat, or winter triticale will allow a fall harvest or grazing as well as a harvest or grazing of the winter cereal next spring. Keep in mind that the window for harvesting rye silage in the spring to obtain high quality forage is usually very early and very short. Winter wheat and winter triticale mature later and more slowly in the spring than winter rye. Forage yields in the spring will be 2.5 to 3 tons of DM per acre of high quality forage when harvested in boot stage.  In the fall, the oat/winter cereal or spring triticale/winter cereal mix should yield slightly more than oat or spring triticale alone, with the potential for the spring cereal harvest. Corn silage or soybean can be then planted after the winter cereal harvest in the spring.

    Italian Ryegrass Silage
    This grass emerges as fast as oats and could produce up to a ton of dry matter per acre in the fall if planted in August, and less yield if planted into September (it should be planted by mid-September at the latest). This crop would also be available for additional cuttings next year, starting in late April or early May and then every 25-30 days into June or early July.  

    In our research, a fall harvest and three additional harvests the following year have shown total yields between 3 to 5 tons of dry matter across all the harvests, when improved varieties of Italian ryegrass are planted and winter survival is good. Italian ryegrass can winterkill in severe winters. It is important to not allow a lot of growth going into the winter to avoid mold growth that damages the stand. To avoid this, make a late fall cutting or graze to a height of 3 inches late in the year.  This crop will shut down by mid- to late-summer the year after a fall establishment. It would fit best in a rotation with sorghum-sudangrass or forage sorghum planted in early July.

    Harvesting Italian ryegrass before heading optimizes quality, as with all grasses.  When planted in September and harvested in late fall, the quality will be superb (NDF around 48% and NDF digestibility about 80%).  August plantings harvested in late fall will be slightly lower in quality with crude protein in the mid-teens and NDF in the mid-50s.  Next year, the crop will head out quickly at each harvest, and will be a medium quality forage. But with proper diet formulation, it can be used in even in lactating cow rations.

    Sorghum, Sorgumsudan, and Pearl Millet
    Compared to oats or spring triticale the warm season grasses like sorghum, sudan grass, sorghum sudan and pearl millet need to be planted sooner and carry more risks. These crops should be planted as early in July as possible to maximize growth. Some producers even prefer to just grow more corn silage on the ground with research from Wisconsin suggesting August’s first planted corn silage can yield 1.5-2 tons of dry matter. In that study, Mid July planted corn silage yielded 4-5 tons of dry matter. The benefit of corn silage is that it is familiar and has more weed control options. Sorghum and sorghum sudan have yielded between 2-6 tons of dry matter but usually contain less energy than corn silage. One advantage to sorghum and sorghum sudan is that it can be made as baleage. 

    Summary
    Utilizing short-season forages can provide excellent quality forage to supplement other forages such as corn silage and alfalfa or perennial grasses, while also increasing land use efficiency. Maintaining forage cover year-round protects the soil from erosion and contributes to building soil organic matter over the long-term.

  2. Southwest Ohio Corn Growers & Fayette County Agronomy Field Day: Tuesday, August 15th, 2023

    Author(s): Ken Ford

    Fayette County is known for its rich heritage in the agricultural industry. What better place for an agronomy, precision agriculture, and agricultural technology field day?

    On August 15th, 2023, the Southwest Ohio Corn Growers Association, the Fayette County Agronomy Committee, and the Fayette County Extension Office will hold their annual field day and agronomy plot demonstrations. The event will be held at the Fayette County Research and Demonstration Farm, located northeast of Washington C.H. at 2770 Old Route 38, at the Fayette County Airport. The field day will be from 9:00 am to 2:00 pm. It is free to attend and will include lunch. Certified Crop Advisor credits will also be available for the various sessions of the event.

    The event will begin promptly at 9:00 am with live field demonstrations being conducted by Progressive Edge Ag. Services, LLC which handles Precision Planting equipment and technology. Eric Tipton will be guiding the discussions in the field of recently planted corn and corn that will be planted on the day of the event. Along with planting demonstrations, there will be demonstrations with spray drones and dry spreading drones used for seeding cover crops and applying fertilizers. In the equipment building the speakers will include Todd Janzen, from the Janzen Schroeder Agricultural Law office discussing, “Ag. data legal issues, whose data is it anyway?” Elizabeth Hawkins, from the Ohio State University, will be speaking about “moisture and temperature monitoring in different field management conditions”. Our lunchtime speakers will include Jamie Gentry from the Enterprise Advisory Group to discuss the economic development and changes in Fayette County and representatives from the National and Ohio Corn and Wheat Growers will give updates on state and national activities the organization has been monitoring and participating in.

    Beyond the educational sessions, agricultural equipment, technology, lending, marketing, seed, and chemical companies will be available throughout the event to answer questions and display their newest, innovative products. If you are interested in being an exhibitor, there is still availability to participate. Go to fayette.osu.edu to download a registration form to become an exhibitor. At lunch, a drawing will take place for Corn and Wheat Grower members. The drawing includes two gift certificates for $500, one for seed and one for equipment parts at participating businesses. Membership is available on the day of the event, and members can win one of the gift certificates. Winners must be present to win.

    At 8:30 am, the Fayette County Health Department and Fayette County Hospital will also be present to offer health screenings. Make sure to sign up before 9:30 am if you want to have a health screening done and please fast prior to the health screening for blood testing. Also, at 8:30 am the Fayette County 4-H program will have complimentary coffee and breakfast sandwiches available to participants. Carson’s Farmhouse Favorites will be serving lunch and do not forget the homemade ice cream, sponsored by Beck’s and Seed Consultants.

    The Southwest Ohio Corn Growers and the Fayette County Agronomy Club would like to thank our 2023 Show Sponsors, Seed Consultants, Seed Genetics Direct, Ohio Corn and Wheat Growers Association, Valero Renewables, and the Fayette County Travel and Tourism Bureau.

    At 6:30 pm the Fayette County Farm Bureau organization will be hosting their 2023 Annual Meeting in the Equipment Building at the event site. For tickets and additional information contact the Fayette County Farm Bureau office directly at 937-382-4407.
    Questions about any portion of the day’s events can be directed to either:

    Ken Ford, Fayette County ANR Educator at 740-335-1150, ford.70@osu.edu or Brooks Warner, Clinton County ANR Educator at 937-382-0901, warner.948@osu.edu.

    For the most up-to-date information go to: www.fayette.osu.edu.

    southwest ohio corn growers association field day flyer

  3. Remember the Soybean Aphid?

    Soybean aphids on the underside  of a soybean leaf.  Photo by Daren Mueller, Iowa State University

    You know how at the end of the horror movie there’s always some hint that the monster may come back?  We don’t know if this year will be “Soybean Aphid 11: The Return,” but there are some hints that you might want to pay attention to your beans and keep an eye out for this pest.  We have been hearing reports of unusually high numbers of various aphid species on various types of plants – fruits, vegetables, weeds.  This trend appears to be regional, and is being detected in other states as well.  Why?  It’s probably due to the unusual late spring/early summer weather which was very dry.  Wetness is the enemy of aphids because it creates conditions that favor the insect-killing fungi that help keep them in check.  We suspect that aphids got off to a great [great for them] start early this season because of the dry conditions, and now they’re unusually abundant in many settings.

    Soybean aphid never really went entirely away.  When we look hard enough for research purposes we can usually find a few here and there.  While we don’t know if we will see soybean aphid problems in soybean this season, the general happiness of other aphid species this summer suggests that vigilance is appropriate. 

    Soybean aphid damage is not visually apparent until populations are much higher than you want them to be; plants must be examined closely to find early populations.  Starting near the end of July, walk a zig-zag through your field and carefully inspect the undersides of leaves on at least 20 plants.  The aphids are sometimes attended by ants, so ant activity is one tip-off to look more closely for aphids.  Keep count of the number of aphids per plant – if at least 80% of the plants you examine have 250 aphids or more, a spray is warranted.  We really don’t recommend spraying an insecticide before this point – not because we are tree-hugging hippies, but because (a) extensive research has shown that it does pay off even with a low-cost generic product, and (b) it can actually cause non-problematic aphid populations to flare when it kills beneficials like ladybeetles that help suppress them (aphid produce a lot faster than ladybeetles, and a few remaining aphids can turn into many a lot faster than a few remaining ladybeetles to rebound). 

    For more information about soybean aphid scouting and biology based on soybean-checkoff funded Land Grant research, visit https://soybeanresearchinfo.com/soybean-pest/soybean-aphid/

  4. Battle for the Belt: Episode 19

    Episode 19 of Battle for the Belt is now available:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OrrZhlyeMLs

    In Episode 19, we discuss corn growing degree day (GDD) and its applications on different planting dates for the Battle for the Belt project.

    A key step in high yield corn production is monitoring fields and following growth and development throughout the growing season. Understanding how the corn plant responds to various cultural practices and environmental conditions at different stages based on several planting dates is one of our aims in this multi-site, multi-year trial.

    Growing Degree Day (GDD)
    The GDD is a maturity rating system that is based on heat units. In the case of corn, the GDD system is more accurate in determining a hybrid’s maturity compared to the use of ‘days to maturity’ or ‘relative maturity-RM’. Growth of a corn plant is directly related to the accumulation of heat units over time rather than the number of calendar days from planting.

    The GDD system provides information for estimating crop stages and phenology (e.g., tasseling, maturity), given site-specific conditions (e.g., temperatures), and planting date. With this information, users can follow the progress of the crop throughout the growing season, as a tool to help plan crop management during the season.

    The GDD calculation method most used for corn in the U.S. is the 86/50 cutoff method. In short, GDDs are calculated as the average daily temperature minus 50, using the equation below:

    Growing degree day formula

    Two conditions:
    If the maximum daily temperature (Tmax) is greater than 86 degrees Fahrenheit, 86 is used to determine the daily average.

    Similarly, if the minimum daily temperature (Tmin) is less than 50 degrees Fahrenheit, 50 is used to determine the daily average.

    The high cutoff temperature (86 degrees Fahrenheit) is used because growth rates of corn typically do not increase above 86 degrees Fahrenheit. Growth at the low temperature cutoff (50 degrees Fahrenheit) is already close to zero, so it does not continue to slow as temperatures drop further.

    In general, GDDs are calculated daily and are summed over time for a cumulative reading. Table 1 shows a timeline relating corn growth and development to GDDs accumulation during the growing season.

    Table 1. A Timeline for Corn Growth and Development. Adapted from OSU Agronomy Guide, 15th edition.

    Growth Stage*

    Approximate
    GDDs per stage

    Cumulative
    GDDs**

    Planting

    0

    0

    VE

    Emergence

    100

    100

    V3

    3-leaf collar

    246

    346

    V6

    6-leaf collar

    246

    592

    V9

    9-leaf collar

    246

    838

    V12

    12-leaf collar

    182

    1020

    V15

    15-leaf collar

    150

    1170

    V18

    18-leaf collar

    150

    1320

    V19

    19-leaf collar

    50

    1370

    VT

    Tasseling

    50

    1420

    R1

    Silking

    -

    1420

    R2

    Blister

    266

    1686

    R3

    Milk

    81

    1767

    R4

    Dough

    214

    1981

    R5

    Dent

    343

    2324

    R6

    “Black Layer”

    327

    2650

    *Based on leaf collar method as defined by Abendroth, et al. (2011), Corn Growth and Development, PMR 1009 Iowa State Univ. Extension, Ames, IA. **Approximate GDDs between growth stages and cumulative GDDs since planting. Source:  Nielsen, RL. (2011). Predicting Corn Grain Maturity Dates for Delayed Plantings. Corny News Network, Purdue Extension. [online] kingcorn.org/news/timeless/RStagePrediction.html and Nielsen, R.L. (2021). Grain Fill Stages in Corn. Corny News Network, Purdue Extension. [online] kingcorn.org/news/timeless/GrainFill.html

    Accumulated Growing Degree Day (GDD) as of July 10th, 2023:
    The accumulated GDD numbers at our three research sites are presented in Table 2. Taking the Wooster site as the example, according to our field notes, crop stages were consistently at the point where GDD estimations would have suggested:

    Planting date 1, planted on April 14: 996 GDDs; V11-V12 stage

    Planting date 2, planted on April 27: 934 GDDs; V10 stage

    Planting date 3, planted on May 11: 881 GDDs; V9 stage

    Planting date 4, planted on May 30: 687 GDDs; V7 stage

    Planting date 5, planted on June 21: 381 GDDs; V4 stage

    Table 2. The planting date one, two, three, four and five in the trial at all three locations with day of planting, soil, air temperature averages, and GDDs, as of July 10, 2023. Information from CFAES Weather System, https://weather.cfaes.osu.edu/.

    To monitor GDD accumulation during the growing season, users can follow the weekly report about Ohio Crop Weather provided by the United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA-NASS), available online at: www.nass.usda.gov/. Once there, you can find your closest location and proceed with the estimations. Note that you should be getting a weekly number rather than a daily number. Once you have the weekly GDD value, you can aggregate for the growing season. Alternatively, there is an open-source tool that can help in that process Useful to Usable (U2U). The tool helps to develop different scenarios, it provides county-level estimates based on historical GDDs accumulation, planting dates, relative hybrid maturities, GDDs to black layer, and historical freeze temperature dates.

    As with any system, the GDD approach has short­comings. One potential issue is the difference that occurs when accumulating GDD from the planting date versus the emergence date. When this occurs, similar maturity hybrids may vary by 100 to 150 GDDs (the average GDDs required for emergence). Although most companies use the 86/50 cutoff method described above, others use different methods that can lead to different results. Lastly, under delayed planting situa­tions, research has suggested that GDD requirements for maturity may be reduced, often referred to as growing degree compression. At any rate, these are just pieces of information to keep in mind when running your own estimations, but the GDD system alone has certainly important applications across a wide range of farming conditions.

    Battle for the Belt location updates (as of July 17, 2023)
    At the Wooster site, we are moving along. For soybean planting date one, two, three, four, and five, growth stages are R1/R2, V10, V8, V5, and V1. Planting date one did not reach full canopy yet but is branching and flowering. There are signs of disease and insects; however, leaf area affected is minimal and neither should cause yield loss. The corn stages are as follows for planting date one, two, three, four and five: V11, V10, V9, V7, and V4. There was evidence of anthracnose on the oldest corn leaves. The anthracnose will cause early leaf loss in corn; however, this disease is not a concern for yield as it normally only eliminates the oldest leaves. Japanese beetle was found in both corn and soybeans causing a small amount of defoliation.At the Western site, the planting dates, one, two, and three, are flowering. Each of these planting dates have closed canopies and are uniform. Planting date four is not uniform in stage within the plots; there are plants between V4 and V8. Planting date five is at V3. The corn at this location is our furthest along and the hybrid differences in the plots are exaggerated during pollination. The shortest day hybrid was fully tasseled with silks out that had red tint, which means pollination has been successful. The later maturing hybrids were not tasseled. The earliest maturing hybrid in planting date two was also silked and tasseled, while no other plot in panting date two was. The uniformity within single hybrid plots were also lacking with some plants fully tasseled, silked, and, pollinated and some that were not even tasseled.

    Figure 1. Planting date one (planted on April 12, 2023) with a 100-day relative maturity hybrid on July 14, 2023, at the Northwest site. Asynchronous silking and tasseling (silks are out, tassels are not). At the Northwest site, the soybean stages were as follows for planting date one, two, three, four, and five: R2, R2, R1, V10, and V5. The corn was at R1 in the earliest maturing hybrid for planting date one and two. Though this consideration is interesting because this particular hybrid was 75% silked but less than 50% showed tassels, showing that the ear/tassel are completely synced (Figure 1). The rest of the hybrids in planting date one were V16 and planting date two was V14. Planting date three, four, and five are V13, V9, and V7.

    At the Western site, the planting dates, one, two, and three, are flowering. Each of these planting dates have closed canopies and are uniform. Planting date four is not uniform in stage within the plots; there are plants between V4 and V8. Planting date five is at V3. The corn at this location is our furthest along and the hybrid differences in the plots are exaggerated during pollination. The shortest day hybrid was fully tasseled with silks out that had red tint, which means pollination has been successful. The later maturing hybrids were not tasseled. The earliest maturing hybrid in planting date two was also silked and tasseled, while no other plot in panting date two was. The uniformity within single hybrid plots were also lacking with some plants fully tasseled, silked, and, pollinated and some that were not even tasseled.

    Keep following the ‘Battle for the Belt’ this growing season to learn more and get further updates! You can find the full video playlist of Battle for the Belt on the Ohio State Agronomy YouTube channel.

  5. Register for Drainage Field Day

    Black corrugated water drainage pipe, field tile, in farm field with tile plow or ditcher in background
    Author(s): Nic Baumer

    The Ohio State University at Lima will host a Drainage Installation Field Day on the campus farm on Tuesday, July 25, 2023.

    Field demonstrations by the Ohio Land Improvement Contractors of America, or OLICA, will begin at 9 a.m. and will continue in an open-house-style format throughout the day. The event is free and open to the public. Parking will be available off Thayer Road. Maps of the campus with parking and registration areas marked are available as part of the registration process.  

    Lunch will be provided at noon. Bruce Clevenger, a farm management field specialist with OSU Extension, will make a short educational presentation about crop yields and the economic benefits of drainage and drainage water management. Space is limited for lunch, so RSVP by July 16. Register here or visit go.osu.edu/limadrainageday for more information.

    Schedule

    • 9 a.m.-noon: field demonstrations
    • Noon-1:30 p.m.: lunch and educational presentation
    • 1-3 p.m.: demonstrations continue in the field

    The field day is brought to the area by The Ohio State University at Lima; Ohio State’s Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering; and OSU Extension, in cooperation with the Ohio Land Improvement Contractors Association, and OLICA Associate members.

    The rain date is Tuesday, August 1, 2023.

  6. Corn Yield Forecasts as of July 13, 2023

    Author(s): Osler Ortez

    Corn is progressing nicely across most of the state. For the week ending 07/09/23, USDA reported close to 70% of corn being good to excellent in the state (Figure 1). Simulations of 2023 end-of-season corn yield potential and crop staging were performed on July 13, using the UNL Hybrid-Maize crop model in collaboration with faculty and extension educators from 10 universities.

    Forecasts can help researchers, growers, and industry stakeholders make management, logistics, and marketing decisions during the 2023 crop season. Forecasts cover 40 locations across the Corn Belt, including Western (South Charleston), Northwest (Custar), and Northeast (Wooster site) in Ohio. Table 1 summarizes results for the state of Ohio as of July 13, 2023.

    Figure 1. Corn planted on mid-April in Ohio getting close to the tasseling stage. Summary: the crop is still in vegetative stages for most of the state (Figure 2), it is still early to make strong inferences about end-of-season yields. Temperature and rainfall during the rest of July and August will be critical to understanding if the current projections are maintained. The forecasts do not consider yield-limiting factors such as crop stand issues, storm damage, replanting, disease, or nutrient losses. Hence, actual yields could be lower than the estimates provided. Likewise, results can deviate with varying planting dates or hybrid maturities. Additionally, yield forecasts are not field specific and represent an average yield estimate for a given location and surrounding area.

    Table 1. Simulations of 2023 end-of-season corn yield potential and crop stage performed on July 12. Adapted from Grassini et al., 2023.

    §Long-term (last 20+ years) potential yield at each location and surrounding area.
    ¶ Range of forecasted 2023 potential yields based on average planting date in 2023, indicating the potential yields in the 25th and 75th percentile of the potential yield distribution (associated with respective adverse and favorable weather scenarios during the rest of the season).
    † Probability of obtaining a 2023 yield below (<10%), near (±10%), and above (>10%) than the long-term potential yield at each location.

    As more corn yield and phenology forecasts become available this crop season, short briefs will be released via the OSU C.O.R.N. Newsletter. The article included below summarizes the complete forecast and simulation across the Corn Belt. A summary of weather conditions during the last 60 days (from May 13 to July 12) is included in that source.

    Figure 2. Simulated corn stages by July 12.  Source: Grassini et al., 2023.

    Reference
    Grassini, P., Andrade, J., Rizzo, G., Yang, H., Rees, J., Coulter, J., Licht, M., Archontoulis, S., Ciampitti, I., Singh, M., & Ortez, O. (2023). Corn Yield Forecasts: Approach and Interpretation of Results. UNL Nebraska CropWatch. Available from: https://cropwatch.unl.edu/2023/2023-corn-yield-forecasts-july-13

  7. Lep Monitoring Network Update #11 – Time to Scout for WBC!

    The Ohio Lep Network is continuing to monitor moth pests across Ohio. As we enter our eleventh week of reporting, we continue population reports on Western bean cutworm (WBC), corn earworm (CEW), and both variations of European corn borer (ECB - IA & NY).

    While monitoring for black cutworm (BCW) and true armyworm (AMW) have both ended for this season, it should be noted that Van Wert County, which had been seeing an increase of both pest species for the past couple of weeks, is finally beginning to see a decrease in these numbers. This week Van Wert County reported an average of 7.2 BCW (a steep decrease from the 19.5 average last week), and an average of 6.6 AMW compared to the 9.6 average of last week.

    For more information on these pests and many more, check out our website: https://aginsects.osu.edu

    Watching the Western Bean Cutworm
    This is our fourth week reporting on adult Western bean cutworm (WBC) populations across Ohio. Overall, 22 counties have been monitoring for WBC, using 74 traps. The county reporting the highest average number of moths is Lucas County, with an average of 17 moths. Defiance and Henry counties also reported high averages of moths for the week (Figure 1).

    Western Bean Cutworm Moth Map
    July 11th – 17th, 2023

    Figure 1. Average western bean cutworm moths (WBCW) captured from 11th – July 17th. The bold number on the left indicates the average number of moths captured. The second number on the right indicates the number of traps monitored in each county.

    Counties with an average of 7 or more WBC should consider scouting for Western bean cutworm (WBC) egg masses. Numerous counties across Ohio have been seeing an increase of adult moths in traps over this past week. This uptick in numbers indicates that we are possibly nearing the peak week for WBC, and scouting for the egg masses will prove to be important for weeks to come.

    Details on how to scout for WBC egg masses are described below or can be viewed here: https://youtu.be/qGjpwtfkObM

    To scout for WBC eggs and larvae, choose at least 20 consecutive plants in 5 random locations within your corn field. In these locations inspect the uppermost 3-4 leaves for the eggs, as well as the silks of corn in case larvae have emerged. Eggs are laid in clusters and can be a range of colors – as the colors change as they develop, starting as an opaque white color, to a tan/orange color with a possible red ring, and then a final dark royal purple when they are near hatching (Figure 2). Larvae begin as small tannish caterpillars with dark heads when they first emerge from hatching. As they mature, they develop into an orangish-brown color but will have two distinct dark lines running down their body. When scouting be sure to inspect different areas of the field that may be in differing growth stages. Treatment is recommended for field corn, if 8% or more of the plants inspected have eggs or larvae, or for sweet corn if the percentage is 4% or more. WBC can do significant damage to corn in its larval stages, so scouting and monitoring population sizes is an important task, particularly for counties with higher risk. For more information regarding the Western bean cutworm, visit our website: https://aginsects.osu.edu/sites/aginsects/files/imce/ENT_40_14%20WBC.pdf

    Figure 2. Various stages of WBC eggs. Eggs are laid in the uppermost 3-4 leaves of corn plants, and change color as they develop, starting with an opaque white coloration (upper left), turning tan/darker (upper right) and ending with a dark, almost royal purple (bottom left). Photo Credit: Bugwood.org and M. Rice (bottom left). Also, newly hatched WBC larvae (bottom right). Photo Credit: Bugwood.org.

    Chasing the Corn Earworm
    This is our sixth week monitoring the corn earworm (CEW) pest. Overall, 12 counties have been monitoring 21 wing traps. The county with the highest reported average was Brown County, with an average of 25 moths (Figure 3).

    Corn Earworm Moth Map
    July 11th – 17th, 2023

    Figure 3. Average corn earworm moths (CEW) captured from 11th – July 17th. The bold number on the left indicates the average number of moths captured. The second number on the right indicates the number of traps monitored in each county.

    Corn earworm (CEW) is a common pest that we may see in Ohio corn, tomato, and legume fields. CEW is a more common pest for corn fields, specifically sweet corn fields. CEW moths lay their eggs on corn in the early green silk stage. Once the eggs hatch, the larvae cause feeding damage, attract birds, and invite the possibility of mold. CEW damage is seen near the tip of the corn, where most of the damage is reported. Identifying CEW larvae can be difficult, due to their variety of color variations. CEW larvae can range from various shades of brown to tan, green, and some even feature a pinkish hue. Adult moths are light brown and feature dark spots, as well as a large bold spot halfway between their body and wing. For more information on CEW and the threats they pose, check out our previous newsletter: https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/2019-27/corn-earworm-field-corn-watch-molds

    Exploring the European Corn Borer
    This is our ninth week monitoring for the European corn borer across the state of Ohio. We have had 41 traps in 12 counties (Figure 4). We so far have only seen ECB IA, so only this variety is indicated on the map. This week no European corn borer adults were trapped throughout Ohio.

    For more detailed information about the European Corn Borer visit our previous article at: https://aginsects.osu.edu/sites/aginsects/files/imce/ENT_15_14.pdf

    European Corn Borer Moth Map
    July 11th – 17th, 2023

    Figure 4. Average European corn borer moths (ECB) captured from July 11th – July 17th. The bold number on the left indicates the average number of moths captured. The second number on the right indicates the number of traps monitored in each county. Both variants had a total of 0 moths across all our counties in Ohio.

  8. POSTPONED: OSU Extension Weather Extremes Committee and the State Climate Office of Ohio to Host Climate Smart: Farming with Weather Extremes

    Author(s): Aaron Wilson

    Due to less than anticipated registration, the Weather Extremes Committee has made the decision to postpone Climate Smart: Farming with Weather Extremes that was to take place on July 20, 2023. The committee will meet soon to set a new date for late fall 2023. We hope that you will consider joining us at that time. Please look for a save-the-date announcement soon.

    If you have any questions or concerns, please contact me via email or phone (Wilson.1010@osu.edu, 614-292-7930).

Crop Observation and Recommendation Network

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.

Contributors

Aaron Wilson (Byrd Polar & Climate Research Center)
Amber Emmons, CCA (Water Quality Extension Associate)
Andrew Holden (Resigned Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Barry Ward (Program Leader)
Beth Scheckelhoff (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Brooks Warner (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bruce Clevenger, CCA (Field Specialist, Farm Management)
Caden Buschur (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Chris Zoller (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Clifton Martin, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Clint Schroeder (Program Manager)
Curtis Young, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Don Hammersmith (Program Assistant, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Elizabeth Hawkins (Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems)
Eric Richer, CCA (Field Specialist, Farm Management)
Gigi Neal (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Glen Arnold, CCA (Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management )
Grant Davis, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA (Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems)
Horacio Lopez-Nicora (State Specialist, Soybean Pathology)
Jamie Hampton (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Jason Hartschuh, CCA (Field Specialist, Dairy & Precision Livestock)
Jocelyn Birt (Water Quality Extension Associate)
Jordan Penrose (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Kayla Wyse (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Kelley Tilmon (State Specialist, Field Crop Entomology)
Kendall Lovejoy (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Kyle Verhoff (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Lee Beers, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Les Ober, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Mark Badertscher (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Mike Gastier, CCA (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Nic Baumer (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Nick Eckel (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Osler Ortez (State Specialist, Corn & Emerging Crops)
Pierce Paul (State Specialist, Corn and Wheat Diseases)
Pressley Buurma (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Rachel Cochran, CCA (Water Quality Extension Associate, Defiance, Van Wert, Paulding Counties)
Rob Leeds (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Ryan McMichael (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Sarah Noggle (Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources)

Disclaimer

The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.