C.O.R.N. Newsletter 2005-40

Dates Covered: 
December 7, 2005 - December 23, 2005
Editor: 
Greg La Barge

Agricultural Statistics, Why Replication and Randomization are Important

Authors: Robert Mullen

In CORN Newsletter 2005-39 (http://corn.osu.edu/story.php?issueID=117&layout=1&storyID=657), we had a lengthy discussion as to why replication and randomization are necessary for statistical analysis. From a theoretical perspective the article was important, but from an applied perspective why do we care? Today we will discuss the potential influence of factors other than those we are trying to evaluate on experimental outcomes, and how proper statistical design can ensure the conclusions reached are correct.

Replication

Assume you want to evaluate a fungicide treatment on your farm, so you split a field in two and apply the treatment to one half and leave the other half untreated. At the end of the year you harvest each of the two halves and observe a 3 bushel per acre increase in yield on the treated side. This 3 bushel per acre difference seems like a good deal, so you decide that next year all of your acres will be treated with this new fungicide.

Are you sure that the additional 3 bushels per acre was due to the application of the fungicide? Closer inspection of the field reveals that the half of the field that showed the yield response was dominated by a lighter texture soil that drained better than the other half of the field. Due to excessive moisture (this is not necessarily this past year) the half of the field with better drainage might be expected to perform better. With the field split in two, it is impossible to determine what factor contributed to the yield increase.

There are a multitude of other possible explanations for the yield increase: historical management differences, fertility level differences, insect pressure, disease pressure, natural variation in soil productivity, etc. Since we have no replication it is very difficult to reach a definite conclusion as to the cause of the yield increase. This is not to say that the 3 bushel per acre increase was not real, you just can not be positive that the yield difference was due to the treatment you applied.

Replication allows us to estimate the error associated with carrying out the experiment itself. Let’s revisit the fungicide experiment again. Assume you split the field into strips and established three strips that were treated with the fungicide and three that were not. We will look at two different scenarios based on the harvest information.

Scenario 1:
At harvest the yield levels of the three treated strips is 50, 59, and 50. The three untreated strips yielded 44, 57, and 49. The average yield levels for the treated and untreated strips are 53 and 50 bushels per acre, respectively. Statistical analysis (you will just have to trust my statistical skills) reveals that the probability of the fungicide treatment resulting in greater yield is approximately 43%. Stated another way, if you were to carryout the same experiment in this specific field environment, the fungicide treatment would result in a 3 bushel per acre yield increase 43 times out of 100. Notice the qualification in the previous sentence; these experimental results only pertain to this specific field environment (which may not be repeatable because field environment includes weather). This brings up another point, relying on a single year of information is probably not wise. Multiple years of information provides information over many different growing environments. Do not be fooled into rationalizing that the 3 bushel yield increase is a good bet because it may result in a yield increase 43 out of 100 times. Realize that the other 57 times the yield response will be negligible or possibly even detrimental.

Scenario 2:
At harvest the yield levels of the three treated strips is 54, 53, and 52. The three untreated strips yielded 50, 52, and 48. The average yield levels for the treated and untreated strips are 53 and 50 bushels per acre, respectively. Statistical analysis reveals that the probability of the fungicide treatment resulting in a 3 bushel per acre yield increase is approximately 92%. If you carried out the experiment 100 times under these field conditions, in 92 instances the fungicide treatment would be expected to result in a 3 bushel per acre yield increase. This is much more promising than scenario 1.

The only difference between the two scenarios is the variability in the data collected. The average for each treatment has not changed, but notice the spread in the data in scenario 1. Large variability in the data makes it much more difficult to identify treatment differences. In other words, some underlying source of variability exists that we cannot control or possibly even measure.

Randomization

While not stated explicitly in the Replication section, randomization is just as important as replication. Thinking about our initial experiment where the field was split in two. There was an underlying difference in soil productivity due to soil texture and drainage that could affect the experimental outcome by biasing the data. To properly conduct the experiment this variation should be accounted for in the experimental design. Even if you replicated both treatments (with and without fungicide) three times as you did in the Replication section, the conclusions you reach may not be correct if the fungicide treatment was always applied to the same half of the field. The data would be biased based on its location in the field.

In the next CORN Newsletter, we will discuss what LSD (Least Significant Difference) means and how it is used in statistical analysis.

2005 Ohio Corn Performance Test: An Overview

Authors: David Lohnes, Bert Bishop, Allen Geyer, Rich Minyo, Peter Thomison

In 2005, 207 corn hybrids representing 37 commercial brands were evaluated in the Ohio Corn Performance Test. Testing was conducted in three regions of Ohio - Southwestern/West Central (SW/WC); Northwestern (NW); and North Central/Northeastern (NC/NE), with three test sites established within each region. Testing was also conducted at two other Ohio sites that have unique production environments (Coshocton and Piketon). Entries in the regional tests were planted in either an early or full season maturity trial. These test sites provided a range of growing conditions and production environments.

Environmental conditions varied greatly across Ohio during the 2005 growing season, especially with regard to the amount and distribution of precipitation. Cool, wet soil conditions during emergence and early vegetative growth were followed by warm, dry conditions that began as early as mid June at some locations. Temperatures during grain fill were generally warmer than normal. Rainfall was near normal to below normal. Rainfall deficits were most pronounced at test sites in the Southwestern and West Central region.

Despite periods of hot, dry weather, excellent grain yields were recorded at several test sites in northern Ohio. Stalk lodging was severe at the three test sites in southwestern and west central Ohio, which was the region most affected by drought conditions. However, stalk lodging was negligible at other test sites.

Tables 1 and 2 provide an overview of 2005 hybrid performance in the early maturity and full season hybrid trials by region. Complete results can be found at: http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/corn2005/ Averages for grain yield and other measures of agronomic performance are indicated for each region. In addition, the range in test sites averages is shown in parentheses.

Table 1. A regional overview of the early maturity 2005 Ohio Corn Performance Test.


Region
Entries
GrainYield (bu/A)
Moisture(%)
Lodging(%)
Emergence(%)
FinalPlant Stands (plants/A
TestWeight (lbs/bu)
SW/WC
43
171
(154-188)
18.6
(17.0-20.1)
24
(5-57)
96
(88-99)
31,000
(26,800-35,100)
58.0
(55.7-61.1)
NW
63
191
(174-206)
17.6
(16.2-19.8)
1
(0-6)
97
(97-99)
30,900
(26,400-34,700)
58.7
(55.8-62.0)
NE/NC
42
188
(159-213)
21.7
(19.5-23.7)
1
(0-3)
94
(72-98)
30,100
(22,700-35,000)
56.0
(53.2-58.1)






Table 2. A regional overview of the full season 2005 Ohio Corn Performance Test.



Region
Entries
GrainYield (bu/A)
Moisture(%)
Lodging(%)
Emergence(%)
FinalPlant Stands (plants/A
TestWeight (lbs/bu)
SW/WC
66
167
(151-185)
19.0
(16.9-21.2)
27
(7-54)
96
(88-99)
30,400
(26,400-34,900)
57.5
(55.0-60.0)
NW
60
192
(178-208)
19.2
(17.1-22.5)
1
(0-4)
96
(86-99)
30,600
(26,500-33,300)
58.4
(55.5-60.7)
NE/NC
40
190
(176-218)
23.1
(22.0-26.1)
1
(0-5)
94
(80-98)
30,300
(24,900-33,400)
55.3
(52.6-58.1)







Ohio Corn Performance Test - Roundup Ready Corn Evaluation

Authors: Rich Minyo, Allen Geyer, Peter Thomison

With increasing interest in Roundup Ready (RR) hybrids, we conducted an evaluation to provide corn growers with more information on the agronomic performance of RR hybrids when treated with post emergence glyphosphate herbicide applications. In 2005, 14 RR hybrid entries in the Ohio Corn Performance Test regional trials were also planted in separate tests that were sprayed with post emergence glyphosphate applications. In these separate tests, which were conducted at Hoytville (NW Ohio), Wooster (NE Ohio), and South Charleston (NW Ohio), RR hybrids were not divided into maturity groups. Despite periods of hot, dry weather, timely rains promoted higher than expected yields. At Hoytville, grain yields ranged from 166.3 to 201.6 bu/A; stalk lodging was negligible, averaging 1%, and grain moisture at harvest ranged from 15.5 to 19.2%. At Wooster, grain yields ranged from 158.4 to 200.7 bu/A; stalk lodging averaged 2%, and grain moisture at harvest ranged from 18.6 to 25.4%. A complete summary of the results is available online at: https://agcrops.osu.edu/corn/. Data for South Charleston are not reported due to severe stalk lodging. The results demonstrate that there is considerable variation in the agronomic performance RR hybrids, which corn growers should focus on before selecting a RR hybrid.

Northwest Ohio Corn Silage Test

Authors: Peter Thomison, Allen Geyer, Rich Minyo

In recent years, requests for information on corn hybrid silage quality and yields from producers and seed company representatives has been increasing. In 2005, we conducted a joint trial with Michigan State University (MSU) adding one Ohio silage location to Michigan’s two southern (Zone 1) silage locations. The Ohio test site was located in our Northwest Region at Hoytville (Wood County) The two MSU sites are located in Branch and Lenawee counties which are on the Ohio/Michigan state line. The test results from the three locations are treated as one region. The plots were planted with 4 row air type planters and maintained by each respective state utilizing standard production practices. The center 2 rows were harvested with MSU’s self propelled forage harvester. Silage tests were harvested uniformly as close to half milk line as possible. Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) Quality Analysis was performed by MSU using their current procedures. Silage results present the percent dry matter of each hybrid plus green weight and dry weight as tons per acre. Other data presented include percent stand, the percentage of in vitro digestible dry matter, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude protein and starch. Milk production in pounds per ton and pounds per acre are estimated using MILK2000. A complete summary of the the Ohio results is available online at:https://agcrops.osu.edu/corn/ . More information on procedures and additional 2005 MSU test data can be viewed on the web at http://www.css.msu.edu/varietytrials/corn/corntrials.htm.

Trait Decisions In Corn – Part I: Don’t Forget About Performance

Authors: Peter Thomison, Bruce Eisley, Ron Hammond, Mark Loux

Corn hybrid selection is becoming more complicated, as companies increasingly introduce specific traits that are contained in the seed and incorporated into seed prices. Hybrids are available that contain traits for herbicide resistance (Roundup Ready, Liberty Link, and Clearfield) or insect resistance (Bt rootworm, Bt corn borer), or combinations of these ("stacked hybrids"). While corn growers at one time selected hybrids based primarily on performance - yield, standability, and dry down - they must now decide whether they need and are willing to pay for hybrids with transgenic insect and herbicide resistance. In addition, several corn diseases have become more prevalent in the past few years, and choosing hybrids with the best resistance to key diseases remains important.

Similar to conventional hybrids, there is a range in the performance of hybrids with transgenic traits. Growers should not have to sacrifice performance in order to use certain insect or herbicide resistance traits. Use of a hybrid because it has a certain trait, without consideration of performance in comparison to other hybrids, places growers at risk of lost income. Where possible, decisions on performance should continue to be based on historically reliable yield information from replicated trials at multiple locations conducted over multiple years. Data from a limited number of non-replicated strip trials do not allow the statistical comparisons necessary to accurately determine differences in yield or other factors (see http://corn.osu.edu/story.php?issueID=118&layout=1&storyID=659)

It appears that there can be quite a range in the price of traits, based on the company selling the hybrid, how many traits are in the hybrid, and geography. The price of insect resistance traits is lower in Ohio and Michigan than in states further west, because we have fewer problems with corn borer and first-year corn rootworm, and consequently have less need for these traits. The price of each trait can be substantially lower when the hybrid contains two or more traits (“stacked” hybrids). For example, the cost of a Roundup Ready or Bt rootworm hybrid may be $12 to $15 per acre higher than a conventional hybrid, but the cost of a hybrid with both traits may only be $17 per acre higher. Where both traits are needed and will improve income, it can make sense to buy a stacked trait hybrid in order to reduce the price of each trait. However, growers should be cautious about paying more for a stacked trait hybrid in situations where the second trait is unnecessary and will not increase income.

Trait Decisions in Corn – Part II: Insect Resistance

Authors: Peter Thomison, Bruce Eisley, Ron Hammond, Mark Loux

Transgenic (or “GMO”) crops are very effective for management of insects when the situation calls for the use of a preventive tactic. Growers should be aware that any use of these transgenic traits is a priori, that is, prior to knowing an economic problem will occur. They are not therapeutic in nature, which is often the case with use of insecticides. The insects that these traits control, corn borer and rootworm, are existing concerns, but there is presently little or no evidence that suggests that problems with these insects are increasing in Ohio. Recommendations for planting transgenic hybrids thus continue to follow the recommendations for other management tactics - use them only when necessary.

The first insect-related transgenic corn introduced was targeted at European corn borer. Although this transgenic trait is very effective for management of corn borers, growers should ask themselves whether the insect in fact warrants control in their fields. Has the corn borer been a problem in the past? Have you scouted and then treated for this insect in previous years? If you have never had this problem, there is really no reason to begin using a transgenic corn hybrid for its control. However, if the European corn borer has been an occasional or frequent problem in your fields, transgenic corn hybrids resistant to the European corn borer are good alternatives. If you have had problems with other insects that these corn borer transgenic hybrids control, such as black cutworm, fall armyworm, you also might consider using them. Later planting dates (after May 25) generally increase the possibility of damage from European corn borer, and warrant the planting of corn borer Bt hybrids if suitable maturities are available.

The situation with corn rootworms is slightly different, because this insect pest has caused more consistent problem in Ohio, but primarily in continuous corn. However, growers should still ask how often rootworms have caused sufficient injury in their fields to warrant a preventive treatment, especially in first-year corn. There are two circumstances that justify a preventive treatment against rootworm. If a grower chooses to grow continuous corn, a preventive treatment of either a soil insecticide, a high rate of a seed treatment, or a transgenic corn hybrid resistant to rootworms is recommended in Ohio. The second condition that might require a preventive treatment is when a potential for a problem with the western corn rootworm variant exists. This variant is currently a concern in the western portion of Ohio. Our sampling over the past few years continues to suggest that this is NOT presently a widespread problem. Recommendations call for treating first-year corn only if you have sampled the previous year’s soybean crop for the presence of adult western corn rootworms. Fields are sampled by using yellow-sticky traps over a 4 to 6 week period. Treatment for the western corn rootworm variant the following year should be used only when the number of adult beetles on the traps reaches the threshold of 5 adult rootworms/trap/day during any weekly trapping period. Sampling conducted in 2005 by OSU extension personnel showed that only a single field out of over 90 fields sampled reached this threshold. Most fields remained below 3 adult beetles/trap/day. These findings suggest that widespread problems should not occur in 2006.

Another aspect with transgenic corn for management of rootworms (YieldGard Rootworm and YieldGard Plus, and Herculex RW and Herculex Xtra) is that the seed comes treated with a commercially applied seed treatment, either Poncho 250 or Cruiser. These seed treatments are for the management of secondary soil pests, such as wireworms, grubs, and seedcorn maggot. While soil insecticides also control these soil pests, the Bt rootworm trait will not. Of note, the seed of transgenic corn hybrids for corn borer control (YieldGard Corn Borer and Herculex I) are not treated with insecticide unless specifically requested by the purchaser.

When comparing the cost of corn hybrids with Bt rootworm resistance to that of conventional hybrids, it should be noted that the cost of the insecticide treatment on the transgenic seed is included in the seed cost. Hybrid price comparisons shown by seed companies may add the cost for an insecticide seed treatment to the price of the conventional seed, which makes the latter appear to be higher in price. Based on OSU evaluations and those of neighboring states, we continue to believe that insecticide seed treatments are probably not needed on a widespread basis. While fungicide seed treatments are very important, we continue to see very low levels of secondary soil pest problems. But again, growers who have experienced problems with insects such as wireworms, grubs, or seedcorn maggot should consider the use of seed treatments. We recommend that, when comparing costs of using transgenic hybrids with those of conventional hybrids, growers do not automatically include a seed treatment in the cost of the conventional seed. This additional cost should only be included if the grower would normally intend to use an insecticide seed treatment.

In summary, use of hybrids with transgenic Bt traits is a very effective management tactic for growers requiring control of corn borer or rootworm. However, transgenic hybrids should be considered to be only one part of an overall IPM approach in the management of insect pests, and should therefore be used only when and where they are appropriate. Growers should also be reminded that if choosing to use a transgenic corn hybrid, whether based on insect management concerns or because of a price advantage, that they MUST follow insect resistant management (IRM) guidelines. At the very least, growers will have to plant a refuge of at least 20% to a hybrid that does not have the Bt trait. This refuge can be within mile of the transgenic field if using a transgenic corn borer hybrid. However, the refuge for a transgenic rootworm hybrid, including any hybrid with the stacked traits, must be within or adjacent to the transgenic field. Growers should check with their seed dealers for other IRM requirements, because there are additional guidelines. The point is that the use of any transgenic hybrid will increase crop management concerns that a grower will have to follow because of the need for a refuge.

When growers select transgenic hybrids, they should first focus on the agronomic performance of the hybrids across as many test locations as possible. Some of the first herbicide resistant and corn borer Bt corn hybrids (introduced about 10 years ago) were associated with “yield drag” or “yield lag”. As these traits have been widely incorporated in elite genetic backgrounds, differences in yield between Bt/herbicide resistant and their normal counterparts have become less evident, and many of these hybrids are now among the top yielding entries in state performance tests. However, relatively little information is available in university variety trials comparing the agronomic performance of Bt rootworm hybrids corns with their non-rootworm resistant counterparts. Similarly little information is available in university trials on the performance of hybrids with stacked traits. While hybrids with rootworm resistance and stacked traits may produce yields comparable to their conventional counterparts, recently introduced elite conventional hybrids may still offer higher yield potential in environments where insect problems are not present.

Growers also need to consider the time and cost associated with channeling transgenic corn grain approved in the U.S. but not globally. Because of the likelihood of pollen drift and cross pollination, grain from conventional corn hybrids planted in refuge areas next to transgenic Bt corn, not approved for export, may also have to be channeled. Grain facilities that purchase and handle transgenic grain not yet approved in foreign markets can be located on a web based grain handlers database (http://asta.farmprogress.com/) created by the by the American Seed Trade Association.

Trait Decisions in Corn – Part III: Roundup Ready or Not?

Authors: Peter Thomison, Bruce Eisley, Ron Hammond, Mark Loux

Growers are familiar with the effectiveness of glyphosate-based weed management programs in Roundup Ready soybeans, and the advantages that glyphosate can have over other postemergence herbicides. One key difference between corn and soybeans is that corn is subject to competition from weeds sooner after crop emergence, and timing of the postemergence glyphosate application is therefore more critical. For this reason, using a combination of preemergence herbicides applied at the time of planting and a postemergence glyphosate application tends to result in less impact of early-emerging weeds on corn and protects Roundup Ready corn yields. This type of program can also help delay the onset of glyphosate resistance compared to programs consisting of glyphosate exclusively.

It can be difficult to put an exact price on the Roundup Ready corn program, since the price of the Roundup Ready trait depends upon whether it is bundled with Bt traits. If we assume that the cost of the Roundup Ready trait is $12 per acre, and that a preemergence plus postemergence herbicide program will be used, the cost of the entire program could range from about $25 to $32 per acre (not including application costs). The higher price is for the type of herbicide program recommended by many companies, in which a preemergence atrazine premix product (Bicep II Magnum, Guardsman Max, etc) is applied at approximately 2/3 the typical full labeled rate, and followed with the postemergence glyphosate application. A number of other effective preemergence plus postemergence programs are available for conventional corn in the $30 per acre price range. The cost of a preemergence plus postemergence program, even Roundup Ready, can be considerably more than the cost of a preemergence herbicide program, which may be more like $18 to $25 per acre. Growers who need a Bt trait may be able to purchase a stacked trait hybrid containing the Roundup Ready trait for only a few dollars more per acre. This will reduce the cost of the weed management program, making it more competitive with all corn herbicide programs. In addition, several companies are offering growers incentives to use certain preemergence herbicides on Roundup Ready corn, and these incentives can reduce the overall cost.

One of the benefits of the Roundup Ready corn system is, of course, the effectiveness of glyphosate on a number of more problematic weeds. Use of Roundup Ready corn should certainly be considered by those growers with weed problems that often or always require a postemergence treatment, and especially where a grower tends to apply postemergence herbicides when corn is past the V5-V6 stage of growth. Herbicide choice on large conventional corn hybrids can be limited, due to the risk of injury, but glyphosate can be applied to Roundup Ready corn that is 30 inches tall or larger, depending upon whether it is RR Corn or RR Corn 2 (although the crop canopy can prevent spray from reaching small weeds in tall corn). Weeds that always or frequently require a postemergence treatment include shattercane, johnsongrass, giant ragweed, triazine-resistant lambsquarters, Canada thistle, burcucumber, waterhemp, and other perennial weeds. Producers who routinely apply postemergence herbicides in corn may find that they can reduce their herbicide costs by using Roundup Ready corn and glyphosate. However, there are fields in the Ohio where these weeds are not present or where their populations are low, and the other weed species are adequately controlled by preemergence herbicides. Producers who have maintained consistently effective weed control with total preemergence programs may find that the Roundup Ready program unnecessarily increases their weed control costs and their postemergence application workload.

Growers should keep in mind that continuous use of Roundup Ready crops and glyphosate-based weed management programs is likely to increase the rate of development of glyphosate-resistant weed populations, especially if glyphosate is the only herbicide used. It is essential that growers integrate other herbicides with glyphosate in both Roundup Ready corn and soybeans, and properly manage postemergence glyphosate applications (small weeds, the “right” rate). Growers using Roundup Ready corn can also expect to occasionally see volunteer Roundup Ready corn in the following year’s soybeans. Where the soybeans are Roundup Ready, growers will need to include grass herbicides (Assure II, Select Max) with glyphosate in postemergence treatments, at an additional cost of about $6 per acre.

OSU Advanced Agronomy Workshop and OABA/OSU Crop Production Conference

Authors: Mark Loux

This is a reminder about two upcoming meetings in early January. The OSU Advanced Agronomy Workshop is on January 5 at the University Plaza Hotel, just down the street from the Fawcett Center. This is an all-day program (8 to 5) that provides participants with the latest publications from OSU, handouts for all presentations, lunch, and 2 CCA CEU’s in each of the following areas: Nutrient Management, Soil and Water Management, Pest Management, and Crop Management. Topics covered at the meeting include:

The Economics of Agronomics: Peter Thomison and Jim Beuerlein - The economic response of corn, wheat, and soybeans to seeding rates and other inputs will be explored. Special attention will be given to replant decisions, seed treatments, and genetic characteristics.

Entomology IPM - Putting Thresholds to Good Economic Use: Ron Hammond and Bruce Eisley - The basic principles and philosophies of IPM will be covered, including the development and use of economic injury levels and the use of thresholds. Thresholds currently available for the major pests in corn, soybeans, wheat, and alfalfa will be discussed.

Economics of Fertilizer Management – Do Higher Prices Affect Recommendations? Robert Mullen - Session will cover phosphorous and potassium input decisions, crop response, and soil testing.

Nitrogen Economics - Fertilizer and Organic Sources: Robert Mullen and Mark Sulc - Session will cover the economics of supplying N needs of corn through fertilizer N, cover crops, manure, and perennial legumes and grass sod grown in rotation with grain crops.

Current Events in Agricultural Water Management: Larry Brown - Session will provide an update on drainage economics; crop yields with water table management; water harvesting using constructed wetlands for irrigation water supply; and the Midwest Drainage Water Management Initiative to reduce nutrient loads in watersheds.

Diagnostics for First Responders: Anne Dorrance and Pierce Paul - Hands-on session will cover diagnosis of field crop diseases and strategies for successful disease management.

Developing and Maintaining Soil Organic Matter Levels: Warren Dick - Session will cover the factors that influence the soil’s capacity level of organic matter, and an overview of practical methods for developing and maintaining soil organic matter.

Herbicide Resistance Issues: Mark Loux and Jeff Stachler - Hands-on session will cover new developments in herbicide resistance and related shifts in weed populations. Strategies to slow resistance and manage resistant populations will be discussed.

The OABA/OSU Crop Production Conference is on January 6 at the OSU Fawcett Center. The program runs from 9 to 3:30, and provides the following CCA CEU’s: Nutrient Management – 1.5; Soil and Water Management – 0.5; Pest Management – 1.5; and Crop Management – 1.5.

Register for one or both programs through OABA’s website (http://www.oaba.net- go to CCA info), contact OABA at 614-326-7520 for more information. The University Plaza Hotel has rooms available at a reduced price for those needing to stay overnight between programs. Several other hotels are also in the immediate vicinity.

Winter Agronomy Meeting Schedule From Around Ohio

Authors: Dusty Sonnenberg

Snow is in the air and on the ground; a sure sign that winter has arrived in Ohio. With the winter weather also come a flurry of OSU Extension agronomy meetings around the state. Currently on the list are: Licking County’s Central Ohio Agronomy Day on 12/20/05; Shelby County’s Agronomy Day on 1/9/06; Paulding County’s Agronomy Day on 1/10/06, Henry County’s Corn Soybean Day on 1/12/06, Putnam County’s Agronomy Night on 1/17/05; and Sandusky County’s Northern Ohio Crops Day on 2/9/05. Below are more details about each program.

The Central Ohio Agronomy Day slated for Tuesday, December 20, 2005 provides five hours of continuing education credit for certified crop advisors and one hour of row crop pesticide applicator credits for private and commercial applicators.

The program which runs from 9:00 a.m. to 3:45 p.m. in Newark, Ohio at the Newark Campus of Ohio State University and Central Ohio Technical College provides sessions on "Soil Quality", "Conservation Tillage and Earthworms", "Nitrogen Prices in 2006--Implications for Nitrogen Management", "Annual Ryegrass as a Winter Cover Crop", "Herbicide Movement in the Soil", "Drainage Systems Management to Avoid Violations with Manure Application" plus sessions on soy aphids, stalk rot in corn, herbicide resistance and what we learned about soybean rust in 2005. In addition a panel discussion summarizing observations about the 2005 growing season will be included.

Registration costs vary with number and kind of pesticide applicator credits requested. Reservations are encouraged. For additional information contact the Licking County Extension office at (740) 670-5315 or email siegrist.1@osu.edu.

Ohio State University Extension in Shelby County invites you to the annual Agronomy Day on Monday, January 9, 2006 at the Sidney American Legion Hall, 1265 Fourth Avenue, Sidney.

Nitrogen and energy prices are at record highs so we have created two related educational sessions to address both issues. Dr. Robert Mullen, OSU Extension Specialist will provide a 1 ½ hour session on Nitrogen Management. Drs. Harold Keener & Robert Hansen, Agricultural Engineers, plan to spend a 1 ½ hour session reviewing strategies for Low Temperature and SOLAR Grain Drying. With propane and nitrogen costs high, a small investment of $10 for each session and your time could provide excellent payback. There is limited enrollment of 20 participants per session. We will schedule morning, afternoon and evening sessions depending on demand.

An outstanding line up of speakers has already been locked in. Included in this year’s line up are: Dr. Mark Loux, OSU Extension Weed Specialist, will review Weed Resistance and Roundup Ready Crops. Dr. Anne Dorrance, OSU Extension Disease Specialist, plans to bring everyone up to date on Soybean Rust, Phytopthera and other crop diseases. Dr. Ron Hammond, OSU Extension Entomologist, wants to tackle Soybean Aphids, Corn Rootworm, etc; and Dr. Don Breece, OSU Extension Ag Economist, will cover the new CAT Tax & Machinery Cost/Custom Rates.

Remember that pre-registration by January 5 is required for the Nitrogen and Grain Drying sessions. Remember space is limited for these sessions. Local talent committed so far include: Harold Watters-Nozzle selection and sprayer calibration tips; Tim Fine-Non-cropland weed control; Steve Foster-Rodent control around livestock and grain facilities; and District Conservationist Rich Bruns-Conservation Security Program.

Early bird registration begins at 8:30, with presentations beginning at 9am. The day program lasts until 4pm, with a 90 minute break for lunch. We have an evening program that will last from 6 to 10:30pm.

A finalized agenda should be posted on our website near Christmas. The agenda will include suggested credits for CCA's to self report. We will continue to provide a complete agenda providing private pesticide recertification credits. Please contact Roger Bender, County Extension Agent, Agriculture and Natural Resources at (937) 498-7239 or email bender5@osu.edu or check out details on our website at http://shelby.osu.edu.

The Paulding County Agronomy Day 2006 will be held on Tuesday January 10, 2006 at the Paulding County Extension Center from 8:00am - 1:00pm. The 2006 Speakers include: Dr. Robert Mullen speaking on Crop Nutrient Management, Dr. Ron Hammond addressing Crop Insect Management, Dr. Anne Dorrance speaking on Soybean Diseases Identification & a Soybean Rust Update, Mr. Gary Prill presenting the Farm Focus On-Farm Research Trial Results, as well as Local Agricultural Agencies - FSA, SWCD & NRCS. For more information, contact: Jim Lopshire at (419) 399-825 or lopshire.1@osu.edu.

Henry County’s Corn Soybean Day will be held on Thursday, January 12th at the Bavarian Haus near Deshler. Doors open at 8:30 a.m. and the morning program begins at 9:00 with information on Economic Fertility Management Ideas, Emerald Ash Borer and Woodland Management, Soybean Rust and Quadris/Warrior information, Skip-row Soybeans and other production issues, and a Soybean Aphid and Corn Rootworm Up-date. A delicious Bavarian Haus lunch will be served and the afternoon program will include Meth. Labs and Farm Security as well as Farm Transitioning and Risk Management.

The New Ohio Agronomy Guide and Pocket Field Guides will be available for sale. CCA and PAT Credits will be available. Registration is $20 with an additional $10 fee to cover the Pesticide Recertification Credits. For more information call (419) 592-0806, or e-mail sonnenberg.2@osu.edu.

Putnam County’s Agronomy Night will be held on Tuesday, January 17th. The program will be held at the Kalida Knights of Columbus Hall beginning at 6:30 p.m. Contact Glen Arnold at (419) 523-6294.

Sandusky County’s Northern Ohio Crops Day will be held on February 9th at Ole Zim’s Wagonshed near Gibsonburg, Ohio. For more information contact Mark Koenig at (419) 334-6344.


2005 Soybean and Forage Performance Trials Now On-line!

The web searchable Soybean and Forage Performance Trials are now available. The Soybean Trials can be found at: http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/soy2005/ and the Forage Trials at: http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/forage2005/

Archive Issue Contributors: 

State Specialists: Pierce Paul, Dennis Mills (Plant Pathology), Jeff Stachler, Mark Loux (Weed Science), Robert Mullen (Soil Fertility), Peter Thomison (Corn Production) and Ron Hammond (Entomology) Extension Educators: Roger Bender (Shelby), Greg La Barge (Fulton), Howard Siegrist (Licking), Mark Keith Diedrick (Wayne), Harold Watters (Champaign), Glen Arnold (Putnam) and Dusty Sonnenberg (Henry).

About the C.O.R.N. Newsletter

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.