Oh behalf of the Ohio Agronomic Crops Team, we hope all of you have a blessed Christmas and enjoy time with family and friends. This is the last 2005 issue of the Crop Observation and Recommendation Network (CORN) newsletter. We have enjoyed the opportunity to bring this product to you and hope you found the information and resources added profit to your farm and business.
Ohio’s Agronomic Industry is an important cog in the state economy. The industry produces farm gate receipts of $1.9 billion dollars on 55,000 farms producing corn, soybean and wheat on 8.4 million acres. Adding to row crop production is 1.2 million acres of hay valued at $118 million. The economic and social impact that this industry has on our state is tremendous as these dollars turn over in the economy.
We will face the challenges and opportunities of a new year together as we move into 2006. The CORN staff will be here to help you look at your options, put a value on input costs and the potential impact of pests to make the most out of your bottomline. We will good use of research available from Ohio State University and other Midwest Universities to answer these questions. Looking forward we have the potential of ethanol plants becoming a reality for Ohio, and biodiesel production is likely to increase providing new markets to explore for extra value. Industrial uses of our crops is potential value added market that is the focus of the newly created Ohio BioProducts Innovation Center (OBIC) http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~news/story.php?id=3134. These and other opportunities we are yet to discover will present themselves in 2006.
The holiday season would not be complete without college football and while they play other games later in the week, the most important game is played on January 2 at 5:00 pm. We will join many of you as we root for a Buckeye victory! We hope to see all of you during the winter meeting circuit. Please come up and let us know how the Agronomic Crops Team and CORN can be of more value to your business.
Authors: Jim Beuerlein
Most soybean varieties have genetic yield potentials well over 100 Bu/A. A variety’s adaptability to the environment and production system where it will be used sets the yield potential of the production system. The quality of the weather during the growing season and the stresses from weeds, diseases and insects determine what the crop yield will be. A variety’s performance in a previously conducted yield trial is a measure of its performance in that particular environment and production system and does not assure satisfactory performance under a different set of conditions. When a group of varieties is tested for yield over a range of environments, their rank order commonly changes, indicating that some varieties are better adapted to a specific environment than others.
It is best to select varieties with characteristics that will help them perform well in the cultural system and environment to be used rather than on their yield record alone. For example, if excessive growth and lodging are problems, then select varieties that are medium to short in height with good standability. For fields where there is reduced vegetative growth, select later maturing varieties that grow tall. If the field has a history of Phytophthora, select a variety with a resistance gene plus a high partial resistance rating to address that problem. The selection of medium or small seed when using a grain drill will improve metering and stand uniformity. Maturity information should be used to select varieties that mature at different times to allow for timely harvest and high test weights. Fitting the variety to the environment is superior to selecting a variety and hoping the environment and weather will fit.
There are over 600 different soybean varieties marketed to Ohio soybean producers of which almost 200 are entered into the Ohio Soybean Performance Trials by various seed companies. Most seed companies enter their “top-of-the-line” varieties in this trial but some enter none. Selecting a variety that was entered in this trial almost guarantees a producer that his selection is in the top third of all varieties available. If he selects a variety from the trial that yielded better than the average, he is guaranteed to have one of the best varieties available.
The Ohio Soybean Performance Trials provides an unbiased evaluation of variety characteristics and performance to facilitate the selection of varieties appropriate for particular production sites and systems. Field trials are conducted at six locations representing the diverse production regions of Ohio, and several laboratory evaluations are conducted at OARDC in Wooster, Ohio. Data is collected on yield, lodging, relative maturity, seed size, plant height, oil and protein content, and resistance to Phytophthora root rot. The data is published each December in the Ohio’s Country Journal and is also available, free of charge, from county Extension offices and also can be found on the Internet at http://www.agcrops.osu.edu
Authors: Jim Beuerlein
Soybean diseases in Ohio have increased in number and severity over the past 10 years so that today, the loss of productivity from disease averages over $150,000,000 per year. This loss is greater than from any other factor except weather. The increase in soybean disease is due primarily to short crop rotations or no crop rotation. It is estimated that Ohio soybean producers lose an average of five to eight bushels per acre per year to disease. In most years, several diseases are present but some are not recognized due to low levels of infection. It is noteworthy that by the time symptoms of a particular disease appear, the yield loss has already reached seven to ten percent. In many fields there is significant yield loss to disease even though no symptoms are evident.
In the past, we have relied on varieties’ disease resistance and tolerance to provide some measure of control. Many of the Phytophthora control genes are no longer effective because the pathogens have evolved and can overcome the genes’ defense mechanism. During the past ten years, fungicide seed treatments have been used effectively to improve soybean stands and increase the general health of soybean root systems following planting.
In 2005 we continued to evaluate soybean seed treatment fungicides. This evaluation was conducted in a randomized complete block design with eight replications. Plots were 5 feet wide and 45 feet long and included four rows spaced 12 inches apart. The soybean variety SC9344RR was used in this test. All locations except C1 were sprayed in August with insecticide to control bean leaf beetle, Japanese beetle, grass hopper and soybean aphid. The loss of leaf area had reached approximately 7 percent by the time of application. The complete report can be found at: https://agcrops.osu.edu/research/2005/05%20fung%20report.pdf
Authors: Jim Beuerlein
Eleven years of soybean inoculation evaluation consisting of 64 field trials and over 7000 research plots indicate that inoculating soybeans is a very profitable practice. The average yield increase over ten years has returned a profit of over 300 percent. For most inoculation products, a yield increase of half a bushel per acre is profitable and yield increases of 2 to 7 bu/acre have been common.
The test sites used in 2005 were well drained, had good fertility and an appropriate soil pH and the previous crop was either corn or wheat. Typically, under such ideal conditions we would not expect inoculation to increase soybean yield. The fact that yields were increased leads one to predict that even greater yield increases are likely where the soil conditions and cultural practices are less ideal. Plots were 5 feet wide and 45 feet long and included four rows spaced 12 inches apart. The soybean variety, SC9344RR was seeded at a rate of 170,000 seed per acre in this test. All teat sites except for C1 were sprayed in August with insecticide to control bean leaf beetle, Japanese beetle, grass hopper and soybean aphid. The loss of leaf area had reached approximately 7 percent by the time of application. Results of this study can be found at: https://agcrops.osu.edu/research/2005/05%20inoc%20report.pdf
Authors: Allen Geyer, Peter Thomison, Rich Minyo
Interest in growing corn in organic cropping systems has been on the rise in recent years. In 2005, we continued evaluations of corn hybrids marketed for organic producers at the Hirzel Sustainable Systems site, a certified organic farm located near Bowling Green in Wood county and initiated an evaluation on certified organic land at OARDC Badger Farm, near Apple Creek in Wayne county. No fertilizers or pesticides applied to either site. Weed control was provided by mechanical cultivation. The report includes cultural practices used at the sites, 2005 data and 2004-2005 data for hybrids entered both years at the Bowling Green site.
Each entry was planted at two different seeding rates per site. Plots were seeded at 23,000 and 28,000 seeds per acre, in four row plots with the center two rows harvested.
Grain yields ranged from 121.2 to 173.9 bu/A at Bowling Green and 130.4 to 212.2 bu/A at Apple Creek; stalk lodging ranged from 1-10% at Bowling Green and 1-13% at Apple Creek; grain moisture at harvest ranged from 15.9-19.1% at Bowling Green and 16.9-24.6% at Apple Creek. Four seed companies participated in the 2005 test. The relative maturity ratings of the hybrid entries varied from 87 to 113 days.
The results for the 2005 Organic Corn Performance Test can be viewed at: https://agcrops.osu.edu under the corn tab on the left hand side.
Please contact Allen Geyer (phone: 614-292-1393; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) if you would like additional information regarding the test.
Authors: Dusty Sonnenberg
Snow is in the air and on the ground; a sure sign that winter has arrived in Ohio. With the winter weather also come a flurry of OSU Extension agronomy meetings around the state. Currently on the list are: Shelby County’s Agronomy Day on 1/9/06, Paulding County’s Agronomy Day on 1/10/06, Henry County’s Corn Soybean Day on 1/12/06, Putnam County’s Agronomy Night on 1/17/05, Central Ohio Agronomy School on 1/23/06, and Sandusky County’s Northern Ohio Crops Day on 2/9/06. Below are more details about each program.
Ohio State University Extension in Shelby County invites you to the annual Agronomy Day on Monday, January 9, 2006 at the Sidney American Legion Hall, 1265 Fourth Avenue, Sidney.
Nitrogen and energy prices are at record highs so we have created two related educational sessions to address both issues. Dr. Robert Mullen, OSU Extension Specialist will provide a 1 ½ hour session on Nitrogen Management. Drs. Harold Keener & Robert Hansen, Agricultural Engineers, plan to spend a 1 ½ hour session reviewing strategies for Low Temperature and SOLAR Grain Drying. With propane and nitrogen costs high, a small investment of $10 for each session and your time could provide excellent payback. There is limited enrollment of 20 participants per session. We will schedule morning, afternoon and evening sessions depending on demand.
An outstanding line up of speakers has already been locked in. Included in this year’s line up are: Dr. Mark Loux, OSU Extension Weed Specialist, will review Weed Resistance and Roundup Ready Crops. Dr. Anne Dorrance, OSU Extension Disease Specialist, plans to bring everyone up to date on Soybean Rust, Phytopthera and other crop diseases. Dr. Ron Hammond, OSU Extension Entomologist, wants to tackle Soybean Aphids, Corn Rootworm, etc; and Dr. Don Breece, OSU Extension Ag Economist, will cover the new CAT Tax & Machinery Cost/Custom Rates.
Remember that pre-registration by January 5 is required for the Nitrogen and Grain Drying sessions. Remember space is limited for these sessions. Local talent committed so far include: Harold Watters-Nozzle selection and sprayer calibration tips; Tim Fine-Non-cropland weed control; Steve Foster-Rodent control around livestock and grain facilities; and District Conservationist Rich Bruns-Conservation Security Program.
Early bird registration begins at 8:30, with presentations beginning at 9am. The day program lasts until 4pm, with a 90 minute break for lunch. We have an evening program that will last from 6 to 10:30pm.
A finalized agenda should be posted on our website near Christmas. The agenda will include suggested credits for CCA's to self report. We will continue to provide a complete agenda providing private pesticide recertification credits. Please contact Roger Bender, County Extension Agent, Agriculture and Natural Resources at (937) 498-7239 or email email@example.com or check out details on our website at http://shelby.osu.edu/.
The Paulding County Agronomy Day 2006 will be held on Tuesday January 10, 2006 at the Paulding County Extension Center from 8:00am - 1:00pm. The 2006 Speakers include: Dr. Robert Mullen speaking on Crop Nutrient Management, Dr. Ron Hammond addressing Crop Insect Management, Dr. Anne Dorrance speaking on Soybean Diseases Identification & a Soybean Rust Update, Mr. Gary Prill presenting the Farm Focus On-Farm Research Trial Results, as well as Local Agricultural Agencies - FSA, SWCD & NRCS. For more information, contact: Jim Lopshire at (419) 399-825 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Henry County’s Corn Soybean Day will be held on Thursday, January 12th at the Bavarian Haus near Deshler. Doors open at 8:30 a.m. and the morning program begins at 9:00 with information on Economic Fertility Management Ideas, Emerald Ash Borer and Woodland Management, Soybean Rust and Quadris/Warrior information, Skip-row Soybeans and other production issues, and a Soybean Aphid and Corn Rootworm Up-date. A delicious Bavarian Haus lunch will be served and the afternoon program will include Meth. Labs and Farm Security as well as Farm Transitioning and Risk Management.
The New Ohio Agronomy Guide and Pocket Field Guides will be available for sale. CCA and PAT Credits will be available. Registration is $20 with an additional $10 fee to cover the Pesticide Recertification Credits. For more information call (419) 592-0806, or e-mail email@example.com.
Putnam County’s Agronomy Night will be held on Tuesday, January 17th. The program will be held at the Kalida Knights of Columbus Hall beginning at 6:30 p.m. Contact Glen Arnold at (419) 523-6294.
The 2006 Central Ohio Agronomy School is scheduled to begin on Monday evening January 23rd from 6:30 –9:00 p.m. This seven-week program will provide the attendees with the most comprehensive, up-to-date crop production and agricultural technology information available today. This school is designed with everyone in mind; part-time or full-time producer, beginner or CCA agronomist. Within each subject area we will teach the basic concepts and progress to the most advanced agronomic principles. Topics include;
Soil Fertility—Dr. Robert Mullen:
How to Read a Soil Test, -How to Create a Fertilizer Recommendation and Application From a Soil Test, Fertilizer Pricing, How to Figure the Best Fertilizer Buy, Lime vs. Gypsum and Fertilizer Economics in Today’s Market Place.
Weed Control—Dr. Mark Loux
Weed Control Update for 2006, Herbicide Resistance Strategies for Corn and
Soybean Production and Economical Corn and Soybean Herbicide Programs.
Corn Production—Dr. Peter Thomison
Corn Growth and Development, Corn Nutrient and Water Usage, Optimum Plant Population for Ohio Corn Production and Troubleshooting ‘05 Production Problems.
Disease Development and Fungicide Use in Ohio - Dr. Anne Dorrance
Soybean Rust-What happened in ’05 and Predictions for ’06, Crop Growth and Development vs. Proper Fungicide Applications, and Efficient Use of Fungicides in Ohio Crop Production.
Outlook & Economics — Dr. Matt Roberts
World outlook for grain & energy, Ohio Outlook for Grain & Energy and Input pricing & Use Strategies.
Crop Scouting — Jeff Stachler
Crop Scouting Techniques for Ohio Crop Production, “Hands-on” Weed Identification Workshop
* Grass plants ID with actual plants
* Broadleaf weed ID with actual plants
New Technologies in Crop Production
Nozzle Selection for Fungicide Applications - Steve Ruhl
Lightbar Guidance Systems, Selection, Uses & Economics - John Barker
Auto Steer Technologies for Ohio Crop Production, - Tim Norris
This school provides 18 hours of continuing education credits for certified crop advisors and 10.5 hours of pesticide recertification credits. Registration costs vary due to CUE credits and pesticide applicator credits.
The following link will take you to a pdf brochure for this program. http://knox.osu.edu/ag/images/centralOhioAg06.pdf
For more information contact the Knox (740-397-0401) or Morrow (419 – 947-1070) County Extension Offices.
Sandusky County’s Northern Ohio Crops Day will be held on February 9th at Ole Zim’s Wagonshed near Gibsonburg, Ohio. The program will begin at 9:00 a.m. and run until 3:00 p.m. Topics for this year include: “Doing Business with FSA Online” with Todd Warner, FSA Sandusky County Executive Director; “Seed Trait Stacking What is the Story?” with Dr. Bruce Eisley, OSU Extension Entemology; “Fungicide Safety Issues” with Joanne Kick-Raack, OSU Extension Pesticide Applicator Training Director; “Staging Soybeans, Why is it important?” with Dr. Ed Lentz, OSU Extension, Seneca County; “Weed Resistance” with Jeff Stachler, OSU Extension Weed Science; “Soybean Insects – Poncho & Cruiser” with Dr. Ron Hammond, OARDC Entemology; “Soybean Seed Treatment & Soybean Rust” with Dennis Mills, OSU Extension Plant Pathology; and “Nitrogen Rates for Corn” with Dr. Robert Mullen, OSU Extension Soil Fertiltiy Specialist.
For more information contact Mark Koenig at (419) 334-6344.
State Specialists: Pierce Paul, Dennis Mills & Anne Dorrance (Plant Pathology), Mark Loux & Jeff Stachler (Weed Science), Robert Mullen (Soil Fertility), Bruce Eisley (IPM), Jim Beuerlein (Small Grains & Soybean Production), Peter Thomison (Corn Production) and Ron Hammond (Entomology); Extension Educators: Roger Bender (Shelby), Greg La Barge (Fulton), Howard Siegrist (Licking), Mark Keonig (Sandusky), Keith Diedrick (Wayne), Gary Wilson (Hancock), Harold Watters (Champaign), Alan Sundermeier (Wood), Glen Arnold (Putnam), Ed Lentz (Seneca), Todd Mangen (Mercer), Steve Foster (Darke), Bruce Clevenger (Defiance), Jim Skeeles (Lorain), Andy Kleinschmidt & Gary Prill (Van Wert), Steve Bartels (Butler), Dusty Sonnenberg (Henry), John Barker (Knox), Tammy Dobbels (Logan), Mike Estadt (Pickaway), John Hixson (Union), John Smith (Auglaize), Curtis Young (Allen), John Yost (Fayette) and Steve Prochaska (Crawford).