In This Issue:
- Soybean Insect Update
- Estimating Yield Losses in Drought Damaged Corn Fields
- Pricing Drought-Stressed Corn Silage
- Leaf Cupping and Wrinkling in Soybeans
- Summer Seeded Oats
- Summer Seeded Cover Crops
- Selecting a Wheat Variety for the 2008 Crop
- Keeping Wheat in Your Crop Rotation, it Produces Big Crop Profits
- Three Important Steps to High Yields of Wheat
- 2007 FSR CCA College - Registration Now Open
- Weed Management of Winter Wheat Stubble
- Soybean Aphid Pest Alert for Northeast Ohio
Authors: Bruce Eisley, Ron Hammond
As we move into the month of August, there are a number of insect pest problems that continue to warrant close monitoring on soybeans.
Soybean Aphid – Reports are coming in of aphid populations finally being seen in Ohio soybean fields, especially in northern counties. For the most part, aphids are still being reported at low populations. However, sampling for soybean aphids should still be a primary part of your weekly routine, at least through August. Remember, the threshold, the point when a field should be sprayed so that the economic injury level is not reached, is 250 aphids per plant with a rising population. 250 aphids per plant will NOT cause a yield loss; this is the level when you should spray to keep the aphids from reaching 750-1000 aphids or more per plant. Furthermore, an additionally concern is the growth stage of the soybean crop. The 250 aphid per plant threshold is of use through the R5 soybean growth stage, which is during initial seed growth. As the plants reach R6, or full seed stage, the level when you should spray is higher. Although an accepted threshold at R6 has not yet been determined, we would recommend NOT spraying unless the population is going much higher; probably well above 500 aphids per plant. However, it would be of greatest benefit to growers to make treatment decisions before or during the R5 stage. A final point to make concerns the preharvest interval. Most insecticides have a preharvest interval on soybeans of 21 or more days. Make sure that when selecting an insecticide, you allow enough time between spraying and potential harvesting according to label directions.
Bean Leaf Beetle – We continue to get reports of large numbers of bean leaf beetles feeding on soybeans. We still recommend using established defoliation thresholds of between 15-20% of the entire plant before treatment. A consideration to factor in is the new growth being put on by the plants following recent rains. If a large beetle population is in your field preventing this new growth from emerging, an insecticide treatment might be warranted.
Twospotted Spider Mite – We also are continuing to get calls on twospotted spider mites, especially from areas of the state that remain dry. As we have mentioned in past C.O.R.N. newsletters, these mites could be problems across the entire field, or limited to field edges. If the former, the whole field will need spraying. If only on the edge, you can get by with treating those field edges. Remember, only chlorpyrifos (Lorsban, Nufos, Yuma) and dimethoate are effective against twospotted mites. Before treatment, growers should examine the underside of the leaves to make sure mites are still alive and active. Recent rainfall along with increasing humidity will soon begin to cause twospotted spider mite populations to crash. Whether this occurs soon or sometime in August, growers should make sure mites are still active and feeding on the plant before making an insecticide application. However, with the forecast calling for no rain and hot temperatures, mites will continue to be active.
Authors: Peter Thomison
Rainfall during the past two weeks has helped many drought stressed corn fields. However, some areas have still only received trace amounts of rain. In upcoming weeks, corn growers with drought damaged fields may want to predict grain yields prior to harvest in order to help with marketing and harvest plans.
Two procedures which are widely used for estimating corn grain yields prior to harvest are the YIELD COMPONENT METHOD (also referred to as the "slide rule" or corn yield calculator) and the EAR WEIGHT METHOD. Each method will often produce yield estimates that are within 20 bu/ac of actual yield. Such estimates can be helpful for general planning purposes.
THE YIELD COMPONENT METHOD was developed by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Illinois. The principal advantage to this method is that it can be used as early as the milk stage of kernel development, a stage many Ohio corn fields have probably achieved. The yield component method involves use of a numerical constant for kernel weight which is figured into an equation in order to calculate grain yield. This numerical constant is sometimes referred to as a "fudge factor" since it is based on a predetermined average kernel weight. Since weight per kernel will vary depending on hybrid and environment, the yield component method should be used only to estimate relative grain yields, i.e. "ballpark" grain yields.
When below normal rainfall occurs during grain fill (resulting in low kernel weights), the yield component method will OVERESTIMATE yields. In a year with good grain fill conditions (resulting in high kernel weights) the method will underestimate grain yields.
Step 1. Count the number of harvestable ears in a length of row equivalent to 1/1000th acre. For 30 inch rows, this would be 17 ft. 5 in.
Step 2. On every fifth ear, count the number of kernel rows per ear and determine the average.
Step 3. On each of these ears count the number of kernels per row and determine the average. (Do not count kernels on either the butt or tip of the ear that are less than half the size of normal size kernels.)
Step 4. Yield (bushels per acre) equals (ear #) x (avg. row #) x (avg. kernel #) divided by 90.
Step 5. Repeat the procedure for at least four additional sites across the field.
Example: You are evaluating a field with 30 inch rows. You counted 24 ears (per 17' 5" = row section). Sampling every fifth ear resulted in an average row number of 16 and an average number of kernels per row of 30. The estimated yield for that site in the field would be (24 x 16 x 30) divided by 90, which equals 128 bu/acre.
THE EAR WEIGHT METHOD can only be used after the grain is physiologically mature (black layer), which occurs at about 30 35% grain moisture. Since this method is based on actual ear weight, it should be somewhat more accurate than the yield component method above. However, there still is a fudge factor in the formula to account for average shellout percentage.
Sample several sites in the field. At each site, measure off a length of row equal to 1/1000th acre. Count the number of harvestable ears in the 1/1000th acre.
Weigh every fifth ear and calculate the average ear weight (pounds) for the site. Hand shell the same ears, mix the grain well, and determine an average percent grain moisture with a portable moisture tester.
Calculate estimated grain yield as follows:
Step A) Multiply ear number by average ear weight.
Step B) Multiply average grain moisture by 1.411.
Step C) Add 46.2 to the result from step B.
Step D) Divide the result from step A by the result from step C.
Step E) Multiply the result from step D by 1,000.
Example: You are evaluating a field with 30 inch rows. You counted 24 ears (per 17 ft. 5 in. section). Sampling every fifth ear resulted in an average ear weight of 1/2 pound. The average grain moisture was 30 percent. Estimated yield would be [(24 x 0.5) / ((1.411 x 30) + 46.2)] x 1,000, which equals 135 bu/acre.
Because it can be used at a relatively early stage of kernel development, the Yield Component Method may be of greater assistance to farmers trying to make a decision about whether to harvest their corn for grain or silage. Since drought stress conditions in some fields may result in poorly filled small ears, there may be mechanical difficulties with sheller or picker efficiency that need to be considered. When droughts occur, it’s often cheaper
to buy corn for grain than to buy hay for roughage (because of likely forage deficits). Therefore, there may be greater benefit in harvesting fields with marginal corn grain yield potential for silage.
Authors: Bill Weiss
(See: http://dairy.osu.edu/resource/feed/Pricing%20silage%202002%20Final.pdf .)
The value of drought-stressed corn silage can be estimated using expected nutrient composition and the cost of the nutrients. The average composition of drought-stressed corn silage in Table 1 is reasonable, but the composition of silage for a specific situation (e.g., hybrid, growing conditions, etc.) could be substantially different. The nutrient values were calculated based on numerous feed prices in central Ohio.
Table 1. Average composition of drought-stressed corn silage and current (March-July 2007) value of nutrients in Ohio.
1 RDP = rumen degradable protein (% of dry matter), dRUP = digestible rumen undegradable protein, nNDF = non-effective neutral detergent fiber (NDF), eNDF = effective NDF, NEL = net energy for lactation.
The $154/ton of DM (+$20) or $54/ton (+$7)assuming 35% dry matter is the value when fed to the cow and includes harvest and storage costs and shrink. If you are purchasing standing corn, the purchase price must be adjusted to account for these costs. In addition when purchasing standing corn you assume the resulting silage will be well-fermented and have shrink and nutrient composition similar to what was estimated. These assumptions do not always come true. When you purchase standing corn, in contrast to buying fermented corn silage, you assume additional risk and the price of standing corn should be discounted to account for the risk. I cannot give you a value for risk; each buyer must determine that value for himself.
Price of Standing Corn (assumed 35% dry matter)
Value of corn silagewhen fed to cow
$54/ton of 35% DM silage
Harvest and storagecosts
Price of standing corn
$37/ton (+$5) minus thevalue of risk
For many people both the price of corn silage ($54/ton) and the price of standing corn ($37/ton) seems extremely high (and they are). However, you have to consider replacement costs, i.e., what will it cost if I have to purchase other feeds to replace the nutrients provide by corn silage. Also this is the maximum price a farmer should pay for purchasing corn silage or standing corn. The seller (grower) should estimate his potential gross earning per acre if he sold the crop as grain (minus harvesting costs) and that value becomes the lowest price he should sell his crop for as silage. The actual selling price should probably be somewhere between those two numbers.
Authors: Mark Loux
We have received a number of calls about cupping or wrinkling of soybean leaves, and it seems that this has become an annual issue in much of the cornbelt. Some of the symptoms are undoubtedly due to drift or volatility of herbicides due to the many windy days this year, but some are undoubtedly due to other problems as well. A number of factors can cause these symptoms, and it can be difficult to pinpoint the exact cause. Some additional information on this issue follows. There is also a new fact sheet with color photos available from the University of Wisconsin, “Dicamba Injury to Soybeans”, which can be downloaded from http://ipcm.wisc.edu/Publications/tabid/54/grm2id/32/Default.aspx .
One of the first herbicides to get blamed in many fields is dicamba, which may have been applied in a nearby corn field. Products containing dicamba include Banvel, Clarity, Marksman, Celebrity Plus, Distinct, Northstar, Status, Yukon, and numerous generic products. Exposure of soybeans to low concentrations of dicamba through drift or volatility, or even dicamba residues in spray tanks may be the culprit in some fields. The potential for volatility varies among these products, but all can drift if applied during windy conditions. However, many of the affected fields seem to be far enough away from treated corn fields, or dicamba was not used in the area, and this possibility can be ruled out. The most typical symptoms from exposure of soybeans to dicamba are puckering of the new leaves that are emerging 7 to 10 days after exposure. This may be accompanied by stunting of the plant. Soybeans may show these symptoms on several trifoliates, and then recover completely. Spray particle drift from Distinct and Status application often causes more severe symptoms than dicamba alone, due to the diflufenzopyr component of Distinct. However, there is little risk of volatilization of diflufenzopyr, while dicamba can volatilize readily depending upon formulation and temperature.
Research indicates that soybean yield is not generally reduced when minor symptoms occur, and yield loss is more likely if soybeans are in the reproductive stage at the time of exposure (although still unlikely unless symptoms are severe). Our research with postemergence soybean herbicides indicates that soybeans can tolerate considerable early-season injury with little or no impact on yield, when rainfall and other environmental conditions are generally favorable for crop growth after the injury has occurred. Yield loss seems to be most likely when herbicides are applied after about the beginning of July, and soybeans are small at the time of application (which might occur from late planting or poor early-season growing conditions). Where this has occurred, soybeans may not recover well enough to attain the size needed for maximum yield potential.
Over the past decade, we have heard reports of and observed fields where leaf puckering or cupping was uniform over the entire field. Other fields have shown symptoms only in some areas. In OSU research plots, we have occasionally observed puckering in Roundup Ready soybeans following application of glyphosate. Spider mites and leafhopper have been known to cause cupping and wrinkling of soybean leaves. Many of the fields with puckering were previously treated with a postemergence herbicide other than glyphosate. ALS-inhibiting herbicides seem to be most often used in fields with the symptoms, but other herbicides have also been used. One working theory about these symptoms - when the postemergence herbicide causes injury to the terminal buds on soybeans, apical dominance is altered, and plant hormones are redistributed within the plant. The result is the appearance of injury that is similar to that from plant growth regulator herbicides (dicamba, 2,4-D). New shoots may occur at nodes below the injured zone, the plant may take on more of a bushy appearance, and leaves may be wrinkled and cupped. However, most of the fields have not exhibited the increased "bushiness" that might occur if apical dominance was lost.
While herbicides may be responsible for some of the puckering, cupping, and wrinkling that has been observed, we suspect that environmental conditions and soybean variety may have a significant role. This is based on the observation of uniform cupping in fields where no postemergence herbicide was used. Some varieties may be more likely to show symptoms than others. We have not been able to come up with a good explanation for this phenomenon. However, the good news is that leaf cupping and wrinkling generally should not affect yields, and soybeans generally compensate well from other herbicide-related problems given enough time and moisture.
Authors: Stan Smith
As forage supplies remain tight, an option would be planting oats for forage harvest or grazing. Late seeded oats can be seeded after wheat harvest or interseeded with corn or soybeans with aerial application. Oats is an attractive forage alternative because: it is a low cost seed; requires little additional fertilizer; tolerates dry conditions; produces good tonnage; naturally winterkills. For more information on summer seeded oats refer to the OSU Beef Team at http://beef.osu.edu . or this article http://extension.osu.edu/~news/story.php?id=4174 .
Authors: Alan Sundermeier
Now is an excellent time to be planting a cover crop into wheat stubble fields. There is ample time to utilize the growing degree days that are available between now and a killing frost to capture excess soil nutrients, produce emergency forage, add organic matter, and relieve soil compaction with a cover crop. Some of the non-legume cover crop choices include: oats, cereal rye, annual rye, oilseed radish, and wheat. Summer seeded legume cover crops include: winter pea, red clover, crimson clover, hairy vetch, soybean, and cowpea. Many of the legume species require overwintering and producing significant spring growth in order to supply significant amounts of nitrogen.
Oilseed Radish is a new cover crop being tested in Ohio. We feel it is best suited when planted after a summer manure application. This cover crop needs to be planted by September and will winter kill naturally. For more information refer to this web site at: http://covercrops.msu.edu/pdf_files/extension_bulletin_E2907.pdf .
A seed order is being put together for producers wanting to try oilseed radish. Contact Wood County Extension Educator Alan Sundermeier at email@example.com. if interested.
A new edition of the SARE Managing Cover Crops Profitably book is now available at http://sare.org/publications/covercrops.htm . There is also an on-line pdf version at no cost.
Authors: Dennis Mills, Pierce Paul, Jim Beuerlein
The 2007 Ohio Wheat Performance Trials (http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/wheattrials/default.asp?year=2007 .) evaluated 64 soft red winter wheat varieties and one soft white winter wheat variety at five test sites around Ohio. The highest yield was 107.7 bushels per acre and the highest test weight was 63 pounds per. Yield differences between the five test sites were due primarily to the weather during the grain fill period and disease level. Winter survival was excellent due to the mild winter and there was no lodging due to the shortness of the straw. The average heading date was five days earlier than normal, and average plant height was six inches shorter than normal. Powdery mildew ratings were recorded at Wooster and were higher this year than in 2006.
Variety selection should be based on disease resistance, average yield across test sites and years, winter hardiness, test weight and standability. (http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/wheattrials/regions.asp?year=2007#single .) Contains the results of the 2007 evaluation of varieties. Use the average yield from the five test sites to select a variety because the highest yielding varieties in that column have good yield potential over a wide range of environments. If you have trouble with low test weights, then select a variety that had a high test weight. Be sure to select a variety with good Powdery mildew resistance since we normally have that disease everywhere in the state every year on susceptible varieties. Varieties have different levels of resistance to the various diseases, so select varieties resistant to the disease problems in your area of the state. (http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/wheattrials/table6.asp?year=2007 .)
(http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/wheattrials/regions.asp?year=2007#two .) Contains the performance data from five test sites in 2006 and 2007 combined. In that table you can find 10 varieties that have very high yields and high test weights. There are seven varieties with high test weights and high straw yields, and three varieties that have high grain and straw yields. Today’s wheat varieties seldom lodge unless the seeding rate is too high or too much nitrogen is applied, and most are winter hardy if planted soon after the fly-safe date. So, wheat variety selection is a relatively simple procedure when you use the data from the Ohio Variety Performance Trial. Concentrate on yield and disease resistance when selecting a variety.
Authors: Pierce Paul, Jim Beuerlein
Many years of crop rotation research indicates that adding wheat to your corn/soybean crop rotation will increase your corn and soybean yield by an average of five percent. With today’s high commodity prices, including wheat in your crop rotation can earn big bucks. Consider that the yield of $4.00 corn and $8.00 soybeans was increased five percent due to having wheat in your rotation, and that you average 150 bushels of corn and 45 bushels of soybeans per acre. That five percent extra yield of corn is worth $30.00 per acre and the extra bean yield is worth $18.00 per acre. For 500 acres of both crops that is $24,000.00 of new income due to having wheat in the crop rotation.
Another reason for having a three year rotation including wheat is reduced disease and insect problems your corn and soybean crops and less expenditure for pesticides. Also wheat straw is currently worth $2.00 to $3.00 per bale and is expected to be valuable for several years. Following wheat harvest there is the opportunity to control problem weeds; add tile, lime, or fertilizer, remove rocks, fill in low spots where crops die due to excess water, make a fall forage seeding, or prepare a stale seedbed for next spring.
Wheat is no longer the low yielding crop that it was 15 years ago. In 2007, 18 wheat varieties yielded over 100 bushels per acre in the Ohio Wheat Performance Test at Wooster, Ohio. With the current price of over $4.00 per bushel, wheat is also a highly profitable crop.
Authors: Pierce Paul, Jim Beuerlein
Highly profitable wheat is as simple as1,2,3.
ONE is the selection of a high yielding variety with good resistance to the most prevalent diseases in your area, and then scouting the field starting in mid-May for the diseases for which the variety does not have resistance, and then applying a fungicide if needed.
TWO is planting within a week after the Fly-Safe date at the rate of 18 seeds per foot of row which is 1,254,528 seeds per acre and at a depth of one inch. You may need to grow an earlier maturing soybean variety to facilitate an earlier harvest to allow timely wheat planting. If planting is delayed to more than three weeks after the Fly-Free date, plant 24 seeds per foot of row which is 1,672,704 seeds per acre.
THREE is the pre-plant application of 25 pounds of nitrogen per acre, plus phosphate, potash, and lime according to a soil test. Wheat is very responsive to phosphate and needs a pH between 6.5 and 7.0 for really good performance. In the spring (April 1st- May 15th) apply one pound of nitrogen per bushel of yield goal less the 25 pounds applied in the fall.
Authors: Harold Watters
Again this year we want to encourage you to attend the Farm Science Review. Plan also now to participate in a program targeting Certified Crop Advisors (CCA) and field agronomists.
The Ohio State University Agronomic Crops Team in cooperation with Purdue University will be presenting the Certified Crop Adviser College program at the Review.
Balancing nutrients – manure AND commercial fertilizer
- Brad Joern, Purdue Extension Agronomist
- Robert Mullen, OSU Extension Soil Fertility Specialist
Challenges of growing corn in 2007
- Bob Nielsen, Purdue Extension Corn Specialist
- Peter Thomison, OSU Extension Corn Specialist
Corn disease management – a new era?
- Pierce Paul, OSU Extension Corn & Small Grains Plant Pathologist
- Greg Shaner, Purdue University Plant Pathologist
The program will start at 8AM on Thursday of the Farm Science Review, September 20th, and end at noon followed by lunch. During the program and afterwards over lunch you will have time for interaction with other crop advisors and a chance to ask questions of the Ohio State University and Purdue University specialists.
For the CCA continuing education credits, meal, a parking pass, a ticket to the Farm Science Review and access to some of Indiana and Ohio’s best state specialists, we will charge $70. Registration is limited, please register now through September 7th; no registrations will be taken after that date.
To register this year you may download a registration form and the program details from: http://champaign.osu.edu/ag/ag.htm .
We can also mail or fax a registration form if you wish; for more information call Harold Watters at the Champaign County Extension office 937 484-1526 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Proper management of winter wheat stubble after harvest substantially impacts future weed control. The goal of weed management in wheat stubble should be to eliminate or drastically reduce seed production of all weed species and biennial and perennial species. Control of volunteer winter wheat prior to the end of August is also a benefit. Controlling volunteer winter wheat should reduce the risk of barley yellow dwarf inoculum because there will be fewer host species for aphid (transmitters of barley yellow dwarf) populations to develop.
With the obvious goal stated above, weed control in wheat stubble is still complicated. It is already a little too late to control some species and too early to control other species. It is best to think about control based upon life cycles of weed species. Decide which group(s) of specie(s) is/are most important and target them. The one exception is producers exclusively growing non-GMO crops. For these individuals, management of perennial weed species in wheat stubble is the number one goal. For non-GMO growers and those wanting to control the most species, mow the stubble now and then apply herbicides later based upon the targeted species. Below are the groups of species based upon timing of control measures.
Summer annual species – Stop seed production. Mow fields before flower initiation and mowing as often as necessary to reduce seed production. Stopping viable seed production of grass species via mowing is the most difficult, because many grass species can produce viable seeds within about one week after flowering. Mowing will not eliminate seed production compared to an herbicide application, because low growing plants will still produce seeds. The other option is to apply glyphosate at least at 0.75 pound acid equivalent per acre (lb ae/A) plus 2,4-D ester at least at 1 pint/A as soon as possible or before flower initiation. Higher rates of glyphosate and 2,4-D will reduce the risk of resistant biotypes. This tank-mixture will only kill those species present at the time of the application. Newly emerged plants are possible after application, but will be extremely limited for most species.
Warm-season creeping perennial species - Warm-season creeping perennial species are those which die or are severely injured after a light frost. Some examples include hemp dogbane, common milkweed, and johnsongrass. Mow the wheat stubble immediately to allow sufficient regrowth for maximum control. Apply herbicides in mid-September or at least about one week before a light frost. Apply glyphosate at 1.5 lb ae/A plus 2,4-D ester at least at 1 pt/A for maximum control of most broadleaf warm-season perennial species. For maximum control plants should be at least 8 to 15 inches in height. If johnsongrass only is present, then apply glyphosate at least at 0.75 lb ae/A. The addition of 2,4-D with glyphosate will antagonize the control of most perennial grass species, thus requiring a higher rate of glyphosate.
Cool-season creeping perennial species – Cool-season creeping perennial species are those that are not significantly injured after a light frost. Some examples include Canada thistle and quackgrass. For these species, mow the wheat stubble before August 15th. This will allow plants sufficient time for regrowth before herbicide application. Plants should be at least 8 to 15 inches in height at the time of application for maximum control. Apply glyphosate at least at 1.1 lbs ae/A plus 2,4-D ester at 1.0 pt/A after a light frost or after October 15th. The addition of 2,4-D with glyphosate will antagonize the control of perennial grass species. Additional glyphosate may be needed for species such as tall fescue and Canada bluegrass when mixing 2,4-D with the glyphosate.
Winter annual, biennial, and simple perennial (ex. dandelion and curly dock) species – Stop seed production. For some biennial species, like wild carrot, mowing the wheat stubble as soon as possible will reduce this year’s seed production along with summer annual species and allow for better herbicide coverage of rosette plants later. The best time to control these species is after a light frost or after October 15th. Apply glyphosate at least at 1.1 lbs ae/A plus 2,4-D ester at least at 1.0 pt/A. Lower rates of glyphosate will effectively control winter annual species, but higher glyphosate and/or 2,4-D rates may be needed for certain perennial and biennial species such as curly dock and wild carrot resistant to 2,4-D.
Authors: Ron Hammond, Harold Watters
Several have now observed soybean aphids at threshold levels and beyond in extreme northeast Ohio. Some populations have reached the point that the black sooty mold has appeared putting numbers in the several hundreds to thousands. Likely the aphids moved in on wing from Ontario and Quebec provinces over the past month. There are reports of increasing aphid levels in north central counties of Ohio as well.
Do scout for the pest before applying an insecticide. Threshold levels are 250 aphids per plant in a rising population. Check for product use in the current Corn, Soybean, Wheat and Alfalfa Field Guide (Bulletin 827) available from your local OSU Extension office or the on-line soybean aphid pest recommendation factsheet: http://entomology.osu.edu/ag/545/sisa.pdf. Be aware of honeybee activity when planning any insecticide application.
State Specialists: Pierce Paul and Dennis Mills (Plant Pathology), Ron Hammond and Bruce Eisley (Entomology), Jim Beuerlein, Jeff Stachler, Mark Loux and Peter Thomison (Horticulture and Crop Sciences), Bill Weiss (Animal Sciences). Extension Educators: Roger Bender (Shelby), Howard Siegrist (Licking), Todd Mangen (Mercer), Harold Watters (Champaign), Greg LaBarge (Fulton), Ed Lentz (Seneca), Gary Wilson (Hancock), Alan Sundermeier (Wood), Mike Gastier (Huron), Steve Foster (Darke), Glen Arnold (Putnam), Jim Lopshire (Paulding) Mark Koenig (Sandusky), Steve Bartels (Butler)Stan Smith (Fairfield).