C.O.R.N. Newsletter 2008-01

Dates Covered: 
January 10, 2008 - January 23, 2008
Editor: 
Greg LaBarge

Weed Management Resources

Authors: Mark Loux

The 2008 Weed Control Guide for Ohio and Indiana is available as OSU Extension Bulletin 789 or Purdue publication WS16. This annually updated publication include new herbicides that received federal registration by September of the previous year, as well as pertinent label changes.

New herbicides included in the 2008 guide: Authority First/Sonic, Authority MTZ, Envive, Valor XLT, Halex GT, SureStart, and Prefix.

Herbicide effectiveness tables have been modified to include all new herbicides. Products are now also rated for residual and postemergence control of marestail in soybeans. The effectiveness table for postemergence soybean herbicides now contains ratings for various types of herbicide resistance seen in common and giant ragweed (e.g. glyphosate, ALS, PPO inhibitors).

The information in the “Problem Weed” section has also been updated to include specific recommendations for various types of resistance in ragweeds and marestail.

The Weed Control Guide can be purchased for $8.50 through county extension offices in Ohio and Indiana or by calling the OSU extension publications office (614-292-1607). The bulletin can also be viewed online at:https://agcrops.osu.edu/weeds

Bulletins in the Glyphosate, Weeds, and Crops Series.
Extension weed specialists across the country have collaborated on a series of bulletins that cover various aspects of glyphosate management and resistance, as well as detailed information on the biology and management of some of the more problematic weeds. These can be downloaded from the group’s website, http:/www.glyphosateweedscrops.org. We also have an abundant supply of some of these for distribution at no cost.

Free copies can be obtained by contacting Mark Loux, loux.1@osu.edu, 614-292-9081. Bulletins in the series include:

GWC-1, Facts About Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds
GWC-2, Understanding Glyphosate to Increase Performance
GWC-3, Corn and Soybean Herbicide Chart, classifies herbicides by mode of action
GWC-9, Biology and Management of Horseweed (marestail)
GWC-10,Biology and Management of Wild Buckwheat
GWC-11,Biology and Management of Common Lambsquarters
GWC-12,Biology and Management of Giant Ragweed
GWC-13,Biology and Management of Waterhemp

OSU Weed Management Website (https://agcrops.osu.edu/weeds)
You can find most of the publications mentioned here for download at our website, along with other fact sheets, presentations, and links.

Examples of fact sheets that are on the website:
Control of Lambsquarters in Corn and Soybeans (OSU/Purdue factsheet)
The Benefits of Preemergence Herbicides in Roundup Ready Soybeans (OSU/Purdue factsheet)
Controlling Kochia and Palmer Amaranth in Warm-Season Grass Stands and Cropland (USDA/OSU technical note)

Presentations Available Online from the 2008 OABA/OSU Crop Production Conference and Advanced Agronomy Workshop

Authors: Mark Loux

The Powerpoint presentations from the 2008 OSU/OABA Crop Production Conference and Advanced Agronomy Workshop, which took place on January 3 and 4, are now available on the web. Go to https://agcrops.osu.edu/weeds, where links to each meeting can be found under the “Presentations” heading. Presentations can be viewed or downloaded in pdf format.

Herbicide Update for Corn and Soybeans

Authors: Mark Loux

Corn Herbicides

Halex GT (Syngenta) is a premix of glyphosate, mesotrione (Callisto), and s-metolachlor (Dual II Magnum). This product is intended for early postemergence use (weeds less than 4 inches tall) in glyphosate-resistant (Agrisure GT or Roundup Ready) corn, to control emerged weeds and provide several weeks of residual weed control. The label specifies application with nonionic surfactant and ammonium sulfate, and the addition of atrazine for large weeds or weeds resistant to glyphosate. It can be applied to corn up to 30 inches tall, or up to the 8-leaf stage.

Laudis (Bayer) can be applied postemergence to corn for control of broadleaf and certain grass weeds. The active ingredient is tembotrione, which is an HPPD inhibitor, the same site of action as Callisto and Impact. Laudis is most effective when applied with methylated seed oil or in combination with atrazine, especially for control of ragweeds and small annual grasses. Impact can be applied to field corn, seed corn, popcorn, and sweet corn, but users should check with seed supplier for hybrid and inbred tolerance information before use.

Require Q (DuPont) is a premix of rimsulfuron (Resolve), dicamba, and a safener for postemergence control of broadleaf weeds and small grasses in corn. The rimsulfuron component can also provide limited residual control of some annual grasses and small-seeded broadleaf weeds, This product will be sold as a multi-pack in 2008. The application window is from the V2 stage or when corn is 4 inches tall through the V7 stage or 20-inch corn, whichever is more restrictive.

Resolve Q (DuPont) is a premix of rimsulfuron (Resolve), thifensulfuron (Harmony GT), and a safener for postemergence control of a limited spectrum of small grass and broadleaf weeds. This product will be sold as a multi-pack in 2008. It can be applied through V7 or 20-inch corn.

SureStart (Dow AgroSciences) is a premix of acetochlor, clopyralid, and flumetsulam (i.e Keystone plus Hornet) for preplant or preemergence use in glyphosate-resistant or glufosinate-resistant (Liberty Link) corn. SureStart provides residual of control of grass and broadleaf weeds, but should generally be followed with a postemergence herbicide application for effective season-long control. SureStart can also be applied early postemergence in a mixture with glyphosate or Liberty (depending upon type of corn). This mixture will control emerged weeds and provide residual weed control after application.

Soybean Herbicides

Authority First (FMC) and Sonic (Dow AgroSciences) are trade names for the same premix product, which contains cloransulam (FirstRate) and sulfentrazone (Spartan/Authority). These products, for preplant or preemergence use in soybeans, provide control or partial control of many broadleaf weeds, but will not control ALS-resistant common or giant ragweed. The addition of these products to glyphosate or glyphosate plus 2,4-D ester can improve control of emerged weeds in preplant burndown treatments, but to a lesser extent than products containing chlorimuron. Authority First and Sonic can be used at any soil pH.

Authority MTZ (FMC) is a premix of sulfentrazone (Spartan/Authority) plus metribuzin for preplant or preemergence use in soybeans. Authority MTZ controls a number of broadleaf weeds in soybeans, but has limited activity on annual morningglory and common ragweed, and will not control cocklebur or giant ragweed. Suppression of annual grasses is also possible. The active ingredients in this product can reduce the activity of glyphosate, especially on dandelions and large weeds, or when 2,4-D ester is not included in the spray mixture.

Envive (DuPont) is a premix of chlorimuron (Classic), thifensulfuron (Harmony GT), and flumioxazin (Valor) for preplant or preemergence use in soybeans. Envive is similar to Valor XLT in burndown activity and residual control it provides, although the addition of thifensulfuron may improve control of emerged wild garlic. Both products have worked well in combination with glyphosate, or glyphosate and 2,4-D ester, in burndown treatments. Envive provides residual control or partial control of most broadleaf weeds, with the exception of ALS-resistant giant ragweed. This product is labeled for fall application also, but will not provide more effective control than lower cost options such as Canopy EX when applied in the fall. Enlite is similar to Envive, but has a higher ratio of flumioxazin to chlorimuron, so it contains less chlorimuron per use rate.

Prefix (Syngenta) is a premix of s-metolachlor (Dual II Magnum) and fomesafen (Reflex) for preplant or preemergence use in soybeans. This product is intended for use as part of a preemergence plus postemergence program in Roundup Ready soybeans. Prefix can be applied prior to or at planting to provide several weeks of control of annual grasses, pigweeds, black nightshade, common ragweed, and waterhemp, and followed with a postemergence application of glyphosate.

Valor XLT (Valent) is a premix of chlorimuron (Classic) and flumioxazin (Valor) for preplant or preemergence use in soybeans. Valor XLT is similar to Envive in burndown activity and residual control it provides. Both products have worked well in combination with glyphosate, or glyphosate and 2,4-D ester, in burndown treatments. Valor XLT provides residual control or partial control of most broadleaf weeds, with the exception of ALS-resistant giant ragweed. This product is labeled for fall application also, but will not provide more effective control than lower cost options such as Canopy EX when applied in the fall.

2007 Forage Variety Trial Results Available

Authors: Mark Sulc

Field performance data collected from forage variety trials in Ohio during 2007 is available online at http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~perf/. The report was published in Ohio’s Country Journal in December, and is also available from county extension offices in Ohio.

The report includes performance of commercial varieties of alfalfa, red clover, orchardgrass, tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, and annual ryegrass in tests at South Charleston, North Baltimore, Wooster, and Jackson, Ohio.

Forage yields varied widely from north to south in 2007. The effect of a late spring freeze and dry summer were more severe in the southern half of Ohio. First harvest yields in the performance trials ranged from 14 to 62% below normal, and total season yields ranged from 18 to 80% below normal.

The lowest yields were at Jackson in southeast Ohio, where alfalfa yielded only 1.1 tons of dry matter per acre and tall fescue yielded 2.4 dry tons/acre. In contrast, alfalfa yields at Wooster in northeastern Ohio were near normal with first harvest yields of 2.8 dry tons/acre and total season yields averaging 7.4 dry tons/acre.

Orchardgrass yields at South Charleston in west central Ohio in 2007 were 24% below the 2006 yields. Perennial ryegrass at South Charleston suffered winter injury, and yields were further reduced by the drought, averaging 68% below 2006 yield levels.

The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service reported alfalfa yields in 2007 were 23% below 2006 yields in Ohio. Other hay in 2007 yielded 25% below 2006 levels in Ohio. The lower yields and a 6.6% drop in acreage resulted in a 30% drop in total Ohio hay production.

Winter Manure Application Must Be Done Carefully

Authors: Tami Combs, Jon Rausch

During the past several years, manure nutrient recycling has come under scrutiny, particularly when applied on frozen or snow-covered ground. Farmers should take additional precautions when applying manure under less-than-ideal field conditions. This especially is true during the winter.

Protecting water quality should be a primary objective when applying nutrients. Sudden changes in weather that are typical of late fall/early winter and late winter/early spring increase the potential of manure to move off-sight. Sudden weather changes might lead to manure runoff from farm fields that can pollute nearby creeks, streams and waterways. This impacts the environment and the public's image of agriculture and reduces the available nutrients for the next crop. Ultimately, any manure entering our water resources is violation of Ohio's agricultural pollution abatement laws.

Best Management Practices identified by the USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service Practice Standard 633 (http://efotg.nrcs.usda.gov/ references/public/IL/633.pdf), Waste Utilization can help avoid these situations. By using the guidelines in this Practice Standard, manure nutrients can be recycled efficiently, and the risk of pollution significantly reduced. However, producers should keep in mind that manure applied in the winter has a higher risk of running off the land than will manure that has been incorporated under ideal conditions. Application of manure to frozen or snow-covered ground is not recommended and should be done only when deemed necessary because of extreme situations.
Such situations typically arise from a lack of storage capacity or inflexibility in spreading schedule because of limited storage. Some producers also take advantage of the availability of labor and equipment and the reduction of compaction on frozen soils to apply manure. A rule of thumb for those with manure storage to adopt and follow is to check your manure storage structures before fall harvest. If a producer does not have enough capacity to hold manure for the next six months, then hauling manure should become a priority.

For operations that have a frequent hauling schedule (daily to monthly) or less than six months of storage, manure either must be applied or stockpiled during the winter months. Planning now for these winter events is critical. Identify fields with the lowest risk of manure runoff and planting a cover crop early enough in the summer to achieve at least 90 percent cover by the end of the growing season. Local OSU Extension or SWCD offices can provide assistance.

If manure application is necessary on frozen or snow-covered soils, only enough manure should be applied to address storage limitations until non-frozen soils become available and only when all of the following criteria are met:

# Application rates are limited to10 wet tons per acre for solid manure more than 50 percent moisture and 5 wet tons for manure less than 50 percent moisture. For liquid manure, the application rate is limited to 5,000 gallons per acre.

# Applications are to be made on land with at least 90 percent surface residue cover (e.g. good quality hay or pasture field, all corn grain residues remaining after harvest, all wheat residue cover remaining after harvest, well established cover crop).

# Manure shall not be applied on more than 20 contiguous acres. Each 20 acre block should be separated by a break of at least 200 feet.

# Use fields that are furthest from streams, ditches, waterways, surface inlets, etc. and are least likely to have manure run off a concentrated flow toward and into our waterways.

# Increase the application setback distance to a minimum of 200 feet from environmentally sensitive areas and areas of concentrated flow such as grassy waterways, surface drainage ditches, streams, surface inlets and water bodies. This distance may need to be greater when local conditions warrant (e.g., fields with more slope).

# Manure applied on frozen or snow-covered ground should not exceed the nitrogen need of the next growing crop or the crop removal rate for phosphorus for the next crop (not to exceed 250 pounds per acre), or the crop potassium needs (not to exceed 500 pounds per acre) or 10 wet tons with less than 50 percent moisture; 5 wet tons with greater than 50 percent moisture; or 5,000 gallons of liquid manure per acre. Application rates are based upon the most limiting of these options.

For fields with slopes greater than 6 percent, manure should be applied in alternating strips 60 to 200 feet wide generally on the contour, or in the case of contour strips on alternating strips at rates identified above. Application rates, cover and set-back requirements also apply.

Farmers can take additional steps to minimize the need for winter application of manure. For some, increasing storage capacity might help, and cost-share assistance might be available through the local USDA-NRCS or SWCD offices. Technical assistance also is available to help implement the best management practices for recycling manure nutrients.

Others might need to modify crop rotations to better manage manure application windows. A manure management plan with manure storage should not plan for routine winter application. Winter manure application should be used only because of extenuating circumstances, and only apply enough manure to address storage limitations until non-frozen soils are available.

For those without long-term storage, winter application or stockpiling manure might be necessary. However, prior planning to identify those fields to receive manure is necessary and adequate cover is achieved before winter.

Although some states have prohibited manure application on frozen or snow-covered ground, it still is permitted under careful management in Ohio. However, producers are at risk of losing this sometimes-necessary option if pollution problems resulting from wintertime application of manure continue.

For more information on winter manure application, contact your local SWCD, NRCS or OSU Extension office or USDA-NRCS, Practice Standard 633.

Intensive Workshops for the Top Producer

Authors: Harold Watters

A series of workshops designed to answer some more advanced questions that farmer have will be presented in January and February. These are intensive programs to help the top producer to understand the next level of crop production. We plan hands-on activities at each of the programs with university and industry participation. Class sizes are limited.

Dates:
Jan 29 - Crop Production Workshop, Sidney
Jan 31 - Weed Management Workshop, Columbus
Feb 6 - Plant Pests - Pathology & Entomology Workshop, Wooster

Program details are:

Jan 29 Crop Production Workshop
Shelby County Extension Office, Sidney 9AM to 3PM
•Tillage uses and need
-Covering no-till, strip-till, full tillage
•Soil fertility intensification
-Putting nutrients where you need them
•Crop physiology - understanding yield components
-For corn & soybeans
-Economic aspects

Jan 31 Weed Management Workshop
Columbus campus 9AM to noon.
•Physiology components of weed control
-Mode of action/ site of action
•Understanding resistance
-Ohio problems and management requirements
•Lab exercises in weed control

Feb 6 Plant Pests-Pathology & Entomology Workshop
OARDC Wooster, campus 9 AM to 3PM
•Frogeye - a new disease for Ohio
•Seed treatment update - changes in chemistry
•Insect resistance management - Where is the refuge?
•IPM revisited
•Corn root worm variant in Ohio

Price for each workshop is $50. To include a noon meal at Wooster and Sidney and a parking pass on OSU campus for the Weed Management workshop.

Contact Harold Watters or the staff of OSU Extension - Champaign County for registration and more information or view details at: https://agcrops.osu.edu/calendar/. Email: watters.35@osu.edu, phone 937 484-1526 or by mail 1512 South US 68, Suite B100, Urbana OH 43078.

Contributors include: OSU Specialists Anne Dorrance, Pierce Paul, Mark Loux, Kent Harrison, Jeff Stachler, Peter Thomison, Jim Beuerlein, Robert Mullen, Dennis Mills, Ron Hammond, Andy Michel, Bruce Eisley, agronomist Jamie Bultemeier with John Deere and others.

These programs are co-sponsored by the Ohio Soybean Council.

Precision Agriculture Data Management, Analysis and Decision Making Workshop

Do you have several years of yield data but have never really looked at it from a multi-year standpoint? How do I clean up errors in a yield file? How well do yield response match up to soil types in a field? What are some ways to design a fertility sampling program for my farms?

Approaches to these and many other basic questions on how we can better use yield data in management of inputs will be demonstrated during the Precision Agriculture Data Management, Analysis and Decision Making Workshop. This two day hands-on computer workshop is being held at three locations in the upcoming weeks. Seven years worth of yield data from a sample field will be used to work through examples. We will spend well over 90% of this workshop at the computer working with this data set. The base program used for this workshop is SMS Advanced, but many of the principles of working with yield data and making decisions apply to any of the software suites available for layering data sources.

The program will be held from 9:30-3:00 at the following location and dates:
Fulton County Extension Office-Wauseon- January 29 & February 5
Shelby County Extension Office-Sidney-February 19 & 26
Fayette County Extension Office- Washington Courthouse March 4 & 11

The cost is $175 for the first participant from a operation and $100 for the second. Complete information and registration material for this workshop can be found at: https://agcrops.osu.edu/calendar/ then look for the date of the workshop of interest.

Ohio Wheat Growers Host Annual Meeting in Bucyrus

FOSTORIA, OH - The Ohio Wheat Growers Association (OWGA) will host their annual meeting January 23, 2008. Ohio Agriculture Director Robert Boggs is slated to speak at this year’s meeting.

Wheat growers are invited to attend the meeting, which will be held in the Community Building at the Crawford County Fairgrounds located at 610 Whetstone St. in Bucyrus.

Topics this year include the Ohio Small Grains Marketing Program (the new wheat checkoff), market updates, biofuels and the 2007 Farm Bill. Registration begins at 8 a.m. with the meeting starting at 9. This year’s annual meeting includes a tour of the Mennel Milling Company. For planning purposes, the tour requires climbing stairs. To register for the event please call 740-223-7979 today.

Upcoming Agronomic Workshops

Workshops coming up between now and the end of January are listed below. Pre-registration, normally deadlines are a week ahead of the program date and fees are associated with most of these programs. For a complete listing of winter programs with registration information consult the calendar at https://agcrops.osu.edu/calendar/ or the phone number listed below.

January 14
Agronomy Day 2008

County of Meeting Location: Shelby
Meeting Coordinator Name: Roger Bender/Woody Joslin
Phone Number: 937-498-7239

January 16 & 17
Certified Crop Advisor Pre-Exam Training

County of Meeting Location: Shelby
Meeting Coordinator Name: Wes Haun/Harold Watters
Phone Number: 937-599-4227
Tri-State Conservation Tillage Conference (OH-PA-NY)
State of Meeting Location: Pennsylvania in West Middlkesex
Meeting Coordinator Name: Les Ober
Phone Number: 440-834-4656

January 21, 28, and February 4, 11, 18, 25
2008 Central Ohio Agronomy School

County of Meeting Location: Knox
Meeting Coordinator Name: John Barker
Phone Number: 740-397-0401

January 29
Crop Production Workshop

County of Meeting Location: Shelby
Meeting Coordinator Name: Harold Watters
Phone Number: 937 484-1526

January 29 & February 5
Precision Agriculture Data Management, Analysis and Decision Making Workshop

County of Meeting Location: Fulton
Meeting Coordinator Name: Greg LaBarge
Phone Number: 419 337-9210

January 30
NE Ohio Soybean Workshop

Start Time: 10:00 am
Meeting Coordinator: Name:Steve Hudkins
Phone Number: 330-637-3530

January 31
Weed Management Workshop

County of Meeting Location: Franklin
Meeting Coordinator Name: Harold Watters
Phone Number: 937 484-1526

C.O.R.N. is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio Crop Producers and Industry. C.O.R.N. is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, State Specialists at The Ohio State University and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. C.O.R.N. Questions are directed to State Specialists, Extension Associates, and Agents associated with Ohio State University Extension and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center at The Ohio State University.

Contributors: Contributors: State Specialists: Ann Dorrance, Pierce Paul and Dennis Mills (Plant Pathology), Ron Hammond, and Andy Michel (Entomology), Mark Sulc (Forages) and Peter Thomison (Corn Production). Extension Educators: Howard Siegrist (Licking), Roger Bender (Shelby), Glen Arnold (Putnam), Bruce Clevenger ( Defiance), Ed Lentz (Seneca), Todd Mangen (Mercer), Jonah Johnson (Clark), Greg LaBarge (Fulton), Marissa Mullet (Coshocton) and Gary Wilson (Hancock).

Editor: Greg LaBarge

Archive Issue Contributors: 

Ann Dorrance, Pierce Paul and Dennis Mills (Plant Pathology), Ron Hammond, and Andy Michel (Entomology), Mark Sulc (Forages) and Peter Thomison (Corn Production). Extension Educators: Howard Siegrist (Licking), Roger Bender (Shelby), Glen Arnold (Putnam), Bruce Clevenger ( Defiance), Ed Lentz (Seneca), Todd Mangen (Mercer), Jonah Johnson (Clark), Greg LaBarge (Fulton), Marissa Mullet (Coshocton) and Gary Wilson (Hancock).

Crop Observation and Recommendation Network

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.