In This Issue:
- Hail Injured Corn: Other Considerations
- Another Low to Moderate Head Scab Year in Ohio
- Wheat Harvesting Tips
- A Wet Wheat Harvest Season Ahead
- Prepare Grain Bins for Wheat Harvest - Linda Mason - Purdue University
- Messy weed control situations
- Nitrogen Losses and Wet Weather, How Can We Determine How Much is Lost and What Can Be Done About It?
- Nitrogen Applications to Stressed Soybeans?
- Soybean Aphid Update
- Western OARDC Agronomy Field Day and New Building Dedication- July 8th
- Weather Update
- Upcoming OSU Agronomic Field Day Events
Authors: Pierce Paul, Peter Thomison, Dennis Mills
Last week’s hail storms caused considerable damage to corn in some parts of the state. When we discuss hail losses in corn, our focus is usually on yield reduction caused by a loss of photosynthetic leaf area. However, growers should also be aware of secondary problems such as colonization of affected plant tissues by opportunistic microorganisms and excessive weed growth due to poor canopy development. Although hail injury at early vegetative stages usually causes limited yield losses, if the hail damage is accompanied by excessive rains that result in ponding or saturated soil conditions, plants may rot before they can recover. Soil splashed into hail damaged whorls is laden with microorganisms, including bacteria that may result in soft rots of plant tissue. If weather conditions following the hail damage are not conducive for rapid regrowth, i.e. if conditions are cool, cloudy, and wet, regrowth will be slow and rapid colonization by microorganisms may destroy the growing point and kill plants. In contrast, warm, dry conditions following hail storms usually promote corn growth and retard microorganism injury. Severe hail injury can also delay corn canopy formation and allow weeds to develop that would have otherwise been unable to compete effectively with a vigorous, rapidly growing corn crop.
Concerned about losing their crop, growers have been asking about using foliar fungicide to minimize their losses. While hail damage to the plant tissue may predispose plants to infection by secondary organisms, fungicide applications will not cause the crop to recover from hail damage. Direct yield reduction from hail damage results from the loss of leaf tissue (photosynthetic leaf area) and fungicide application will not regenerate damaged photosynthetic leaf area.
Thomison, P. 2008. Hail damage in corn. C.O.R.N. Newsletter, Ohio State Univ. [On-line]. Available at: http://corn.osu.edu/index.php?setissueID=238 . [URL accessed 6/30/08].
Wise, K. and G. Shaner. 2008. Should Fungicides be Applied to Hail-Damaged Corn? Purdue University Pest & Crop Newsletter. Available at: http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/pestcrop/2008/issue13/index.html [URL accessed 6/30/08].
Authors: Pierce Paul, Dennis Mills
Based on the information coming in from our counties, is seems like Ohio’s wheat has escaped another severe wheat scab epidemic. Surveys conducted by our county Extension Educators show that the level of scab is moderate to low in most fields. The average incidence (percentage of heads with at least one scabby spikelet out of the total number of heads examined) of wheat scab varies from county to county and from field to field within any given county, and so far, ranges from approximately 0 to 28%, that is, 0 to 28 spikes with scab out of every 100 spikes examined. This variation is likely due to differences in variety susceptibility, flowering date, level of Fusarium spores, and weather pattern from one field to another. Fields with slightly higher levels of scab probably flowered during relatively warm, wet periods.
In spite of the rains we had during wheat flowering, cooler-than-usual temperatures contributed to minimizing head scab development. The head scab fungus (Fusarium graminearum) can develop across a wide range of temperature conditions, once moisture is available; however, the development of the disease is much slower at lower temperatures. Head scab develops best under wet, humid, and warm conditions.
The frequent rains we have had during grain fill and leading up to harvest may lead to vomitoxin contamination in some parts of the state, especially in those fields with moderate scab incidence (15 to 28%). While vomitoxin contamination is generally higher in fields with high levels of wheat scab, it is not uncommon to find levels above 2 ppm in late-harvested fields that have been exposed to excessive moisture. Even in the absence of visual scab symptoms, the scab fungi may still colonize grain and produce toxin. Once the wheat head is colonized and the right set of environmental conditions occur (temperatures between 70 and 85F and moisture levels greater than 20%), vomitoxin may be produced. To determine whether your wheat is contaminated with vomitoxin, send a sample of suspect grain for laboratory analysis before feeding to livestock. For more information on mycotoxins and a listing of laboratories that can do the testing, visit the field crops pathology website at: http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/ohiofieldcropdisease/ and click on Moldy Grains, Mycotoxins and Feeding Problems and Mycotoxin Sampling/Laboratories for Analysis.
Authors: Pierce Paul, Jim Beuerlein, Dennis Mills
The wheat crop is drying down very fast and harvest has already begun in some parts of the state. As harvest continues over the next few weeks, growers should keep their eyes on the weather and the moisture content of the grain to ensure good quality wheat. Wheat grain is about 30 percent moisture when it reaches physiological maturity and can be harvested efficiently and easily when the grain moisture is between 14 and 20 percent. Harvesting above 20 percent grain moisture increases kernel damage, and reduces storability, test weight and germination percentage. Delaying harvest past the time that grain reaches 14 percent moisture reduces yield about one-fourth bushel per acre per day, increases cutterbar loss, and decreases test weight each time the grain is wetted by rain or very heavy dew. Exposure of the grain to rain after maturity may lead to sprouting and mold development. Also, the risk of loss by bird and rodent feeding increases as does the potential loss due to fire, hail, high wind, and other weather factors. Yield, test weight, germination percent, grain quality, and harvest efficiency are greatest when the grain moisture is between 14 and 20 percent moisture at harvest. Within that range wheat grain moisture decreases about one percentage point per day with normal weather conditions.
Plan to complete harvest before the grain moisture drops below 14 percent and before it starts raining. Assuming that ideal harvest conditions last for six days enables one to estimate the moisture level at which harvest must start. If the crop can be harvested in two days, harvest can be delayed until the grain reaches 16 percent moisture. For a crop that will require six or more days to harvest, threshing should start when the grain reaches 20 percent moisture.
Check combine thoroughly for worn or broken parts that should be replaced and then lubricate according to the operators’ manual. Adjust cylinder speed, concave clearance, fan speed, and screens for wheat. Service the motor and remove any combustible material from the motor compartment to make the machine field ready so harvest can start on time and at the proper grain moisture content.
The height of the wheat plant varies across most fields and the grain table will need to be very low because some of the plants are very short. The secondary tillers are always shorter than the main tiller, so it is prudent to check their height and be sure they are collected in to the grain table.
Authors: Dennis Mills, Pierce Paul
We have had very persistent rains over the past few weeks and more rain is forecasted for later this week and early next week. The wheat crop is maturing very fast and producers in southern Ohio have already begun harvesting their wheat. With warm, wet conditions likely to occur during most of this harvest season, producers are concerned about two major problems – pre-harvest sprouting and moldy wheat.
Once the wheat matures to the harvest ripe stage, the moisture content of the grain drops to about 14%. This is the ideal time to harvest. However, frequent rains will likely prevent growers from harvesting their wheat. This delay may lead to pre-harvest sprouting in some varieties in some areas. Sprouting is characterized by the swelling of kernels, splitting of seed coats, and germination of seeds (emergence of roots and shoots) within the wheat heads. Some varieties are more tolerant to sprouting than other, and for a given variety, sprouting may vary from one field to another depending on the duration of warm, wet conditions.
Sprouting affects grain quality (test weight). Once moisture is taken up by mature grain, stored reserves (sugars especially) are converted and used up for germination. The conversion of starch (the stored form of carbohydrate) to glucose leads to reduced test weights. Even before visual signs of sprouting are evident, sugars are converted and grain quality is reduced. Since varieties differ in their ability to take up water, their drying rate, the rate at which sugars are used up, and embryo dormancy (resistance to germination), grain quality reduction will vary from one variety to another.
In addition to sprouting, the growth of mold is another problem that may result from rain-related harvest delay. For fungi, mature wheat heads are nothing more than dead plant tissue ready to be colonized. Under warm, wet conditions, saprophytic fungi (and even fungi known to cause diseases such as wheat scab) readily colonize wheat heads, resulting in a dark moldy cast being formed over the heads and straw. This problem is particularly severe on lodged wheat. Like sprouting, moldy grain also results in low test weights and poor grain quality. In addition, some molds may produce toxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON), leading to further grain quality reduction and dockage. While DON contamination is generally higher in fields with high levels of wheat scab, it is not uncommon to find DON (above 2 ppm) in late-harvested fields that have been exposed to excessive moisture. Even in the absence of visual scab symptoms, the fungi that produce DON may still colonize grain and produce toxin.
Very little can be done about sprouting once it has occurred. It is often minimized through variety selection. Growers are advised to harvest their fields as soon as possible. Try to harvest fields (or sections of fields) with sprouting problems and moldy wheat first, and keep problem grain separate from the rest of the lot. If grain is harvested with high moisture content (20%), it should be dried down to avoid further sprouting and mold growth in storage. Since sprouting also affects seed viability and vigor, growers are advised against keeping grain from fields with sprouting problems for seed (even from areas without visible signs of sprouting). Lower test weight is an indication that the quality of the seed has been compromised.
*The article below is an excerpt from the Purdue University “Pest & Crop” website accessed on June 30, 2008 at 9:17 p.m. at: http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/pestcrop/2008/issue13/index.html
-Stored grain insect infestations usually begin from poor sanitation.
-Procedures are given to prevent infestations.
-Now is the time to carry through these procedures.
The 2008 wheat harvest will soon be here. Preparing bins for storage now goes a long way toward preventing insect infestations during the summer. Several species of insects may infest grain in storage. The principal insects that cause damage are the adult and larval stages of beetles, and the larval stage of moths. Damage by these insects includes reducing grain weight and nutritional value; causing contamination (alive or dead); odor, mold, and heat damage problems that reduce the quality of the grain.
Newly harvested wheat may become infested with insects when it comes in contact with previously infested grain in combines, truck beds, wagons, other grain-handling equipment, augers, bucket lifts, grain dumps, or grain already in the bin. Insects may also crawl or fly into grain bins from nearby accumulations of old contaminated grain, livestock feeds, bags, litter, or any other cereal products.
Insect infestations can be prevented with good management practices. Now that many grain bins are empty, the following guidelines should be used before the 2008 grain is placed in bins:
• Brush, sweep out and/or vacuum the combine, truck beds, transport wagons, grain dumps, augers, and elevator buckets to remove insect-infested grain and debris.
• In empty bins, thoroughly sweep or brush down walls, ceilings, ledges, rafters, braces, and handling equipment and remove debris from bins.
• Inside cleaned bins, spray wall surfaces, ledges, braces, rafters, and floors with an approved insecticide, Storcide II® (chlorpyrifos-methyl (the active ingredient in Reldan - stored grain insecticide) and deltamethrin), Tempo SC Ultra® (cyfluthrin), Diacon II® (methoprene) or various diatomaceous earth (D.E.) products) creating a perimeter barrier. Outside, complete this barrier by treating the bases and walls up to 15 feet high, plus the soil around the bins. Storcide II must be sprayed in a downward spray only, and if treating the inside of structure, it can only be applied from the outside.
• Remove all debris from fans, exhausts, and aeration ducts (also from beneath slotted floors, when possible).
• Remove all debris from the storage site and dispose of it properly according to area, state, and/or federal guidelines (this debris usually contains insect eggs, larvae, pupae, and/or adults, ready to infest the newly harvested grain).
• Remove all vegetation growing within ten feet of the bins (preferably the whole storage area). Then spray the cleaned area around bins with a residual herbicide to remove all undesirable weedy plants.
• Repair and seal all damaged areas to the grain storage structure. This is not only to prevent insect migration into the bin, but also to prevent water leakage, which leads to mold growth.
• Do not store newly harvested grain on old grain already in storage.
• Whenever fans are not operated, they should be covered and sealed. This reduces the opportunity for insects and vertebrates to enter the bin through the aeration system.
When grain is placed in bin you may treat with an approved insecticide such as any of the D.E. products, Diacon or Storcide II. If grain is insect infested, fumigate to control existing populations and apply residual insecticide for long-term protection.
Authors: Mark Loux
We seem to have about every weed control situation that is possible across the state, ranging from well-developed crops with adequate weed control to relatively small crops with big weeds. Probably the best news for those with fields more toward the latter is that most of the corn and soybeans are glyphosate-resistant. Glyphosate is still the most effective herbicide on large weeds, with little risk of crop injury. However, be aware that it does not necessarily provide good control of large weeds in all situations, especially where the weed population has lost sensitivity to glyphosate over time. A second caveat here is that the more advanced growth stages of glyphosate-resistant corn and soybeans are not completely immune to glyphosate injury. Last week’s weed management article in C.O.R.N. covered some of the basics of POST glyphosate use in soybeans, and that might be worth a review. Some considerations are offered here for those messy or large weed control situations.
- In glyphosate-resistant crops, apply glyphosate at the highest labeled rate, which is 1.5 lbs ae/A in soybeans, and 1.1 lbs ae/A in corn. For both crops, the total amount of glyphosate that can be applied POST in one season is 2.25 lbs ae/A.
- Glyphosate applications to Roundup Ready soybeans should be concluded before soybean development progresses past the R2 stage. Glyphosate-resistant corn can be treated with broadcast applications of glyphosate through the 8-collar stage or until corn is 30 inches tall, whichever occurs first. Drop nozzles can be used to apply glyphosate to corn up to 48 inches tall, but nozzles should be oriented to keep spray out of the whorl. For applications of glyphosate and other POST herbicides to corn, be sure to accurately assess the stage of corn development. Corn height is not an accurate indicator of corn development, and the growing conditions this season can result in plants that are more advanced in development than size would indicate. Uneven corn growth in many fields is often indicative of a range of growth stages within a field.
- Increasing spray volume to 20 gpa can improve coverage in dense weed infestations, or where spray needs to penetrate into the weed/crop canopy. Use of flat fan nozzles can improve coverage and control compared with nozzles that produce larger and/or fewer droplets. Where the weeds are the same size or larger than the crop, be sure the nozzles are high enough above the weeds to obtain the full spray pattern distribution. Where the weeds are substantially smaller than the corn, use of drop nozzles will often result in more effective control and less risk of injury to the crop.
- Beyond increasing glyphosate rates to the maximum allowed, the other question is whether there is value in mixing other POST herbicides with glyphosate. POST corn herbicides probably provide more help on key problem broadleaf weeds than POST soybean herbicides (glyphosate rarely needs help to control grasses). However, use of many POST corn options may be limited by corn growth stage. Most ALS-inhibiting herbicides can be applied broadcast only through the V4 to V6 growth stage. Broadcast POST options for corn that is past the V6 stage (or past about 20 to 24 inches tall) include Callisto, bromoxynil, Resource, Aim, Status, Yukon, Permit, and Impact. The following herbicides can be applied on corn of this size only with drop nozzles: Accent, Beacon, dicamba, Equip, NorthStar, and Option. The number of herbicides that can be applied to corn more than 36 inches tall is extremely limited. Check herbicide labels and the Ohio/Indiana Weed Control Guide for more information on maximum corn size and application restrictions. The herbicides listed here are not necessarily labeled for application in mixtures with glyphosate, but they might be appropriate for use in conventional corn. In addition, not all of them adequately supplement glyphosate’s activity on problem broadleaf weeds, such as lambsquarters, ragweeds, morningglory, burcucumber, and waterhemp. One strategy for deciding whether a herbicide provides the needed help on a certain weed - check the herbicide effectiveness ratings in the OH/IN Weed Control Guide and use herbicides that are ranked an 8 or 9 on that weed.
- FirstRate, Classic, and Synchony XP are the most common candidates to supplement POST glyphosate applications in soybeans. Mixtures of these herbicides with glyphosate can improve control of ragweeds, morningglory, and marestail. However, their utility can be limited where the weed population is resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. It is also possible that mixing glyphosate with Harmony GT or Synchrony XP can improve control of lambsquarters, but this is not a sure thing in those situations where lambsquarters are especially non-responsive to glyphosate.
- Large weeds in non-GMO soybeans can be especially problematic, especially where the weed population is resistant to ALS inhibitors. We recall the use of some fairly creative concoctions of POST herbicides (“jungle mixes”) in soybeans in the early to mid-1990’s, before the introduction of Roundup Ready soybeans. This type of approach might be in order in non-GMO soybean fields with large weeds. A word of caution on this – our research has shown that late-planted soybeans are more likely than early-planted soybeans to suffer yield loss from POST herbicide injury. While yield is maximized through elimination of weed competition, excess herbicide injury can reduce yield, especially where soybeans are still small this late in the season.
Nitrogen Losses and Wet Weather, How Can We Determine How Much is Lost and What Can Be Done About It?
Authors: Edwin Lentz, Keith Diedrick, Robert Mullen
The wet weather continues and with it, the risk of nitrogen loss. Some areas of the state have seen sizable rainfall amounts and that does increase the risk of leaching or denitrification, but the big question is how much has been lost and more importantly what can be done as a manager to address the situation? Predicting nitrogen loss is a difficult task due to the complexity and variability of soils. Last week’s CORN article (http://tinyurl.com/6nohwm) focused primarily on nitrogen loss potential as a function of timing of application and the material applied. The more time that passes from the actual application, the less important the form of nitrogen becomes. So, there is a substantial risk of nitrogen loss in certain areas of the state, but unfortunately we are not able to tell you exactly how much was lost.
What about prospective tools that we have at our disposal – PSNT (presidedress soil nitrate test) or SPAD meters? Is their use warranted? First, we will focus on the use of PSNT. Presidedress soil nitrate testing is not recommended when commercial fertilizer was used as the nitrogen source (especially if it was injected below the soil surface in a band). The original PSNT was not calibrated for use after commercial fertilization. Our own experience reveals that it does not work that well after commercial fertilizer application as we are unable to identify an “optimum” soil nitrate level that reveals a decreased response to additional nitrogen. Therefore, PSNT is not a viable option.
SPAD meters (handheld units that measure chlorophyll content) have been proposed as a method of determining nitrogen content of corn leaves, and as a method of determining potential responsiveness of a field to additional nitrogen (even going so far as to predict nitrogen rates). There is one major caveat to their use, as the presence of a nitrogen rich (non-nitrogen limiting) area is necessary to serve as a point of calibration for determining responsiveness. Absolute SPAD meter readings are of no use in a single field for determining if additional nitrogen is needed; you must have a reference area (area of the field usually .
So, what should you do as a manager in making a decision? If PSNT and SPAD meters are not viable options, what is left? First, for those with Internet access, flow charts from last week’s CORN article may be used to determine your risk of nitrogen loss. If your risk is moderate, then consider tissue testing to determine the crop’s current status. If the tissue nitrogen concentration is marginal (<2.9%) or you are in the substantial risk category, apply up to 50 pounds of additional nitrogen per acre. These charts may be found at the following Blog site: http://westohcropweather.blogspot.com/2008/06/rainfall-and-nitrogen-loss-should-i-be.html .
If you do not have Internet access, another tool to estimate N loss is a point system developed at the University of Minnesota. This system has been modified to fit Ohio conditions. It also asks a series of questions and assigns a point value depending upon the answer. The probability of a response to additional N increases with more points. The questions and points are given below:
FACTOR 1: What N product was used?
Anhydrous ammonia with N-Serv: 2 points
Anhydrous Ammonia: 3 points
Other fertilizer banded: 4 points
Other fertilizer broadcasted: 5 points
FACTOR 2: When was the fertilizer N applied?
After April 20: 3 points
Before April 20: 5 points
FACTOR 3: What has been the predominate soil moisture status in
the field this spring?
Normal soil conditions: 1 point
Wet soils: 3 points
Standing water/saturated soil: 4 points
FACTOR 4: What is the crop's current condition?
Green plants > 12" tall: 1 point
Green plants < 12" tall: 2 points
Chlorotic plants < 12" tall: 3 points
Chlorotic plants > 12" tall: 5 points
Total the score for the four factors and use the following guidelines:
Less than 11: No supplemental N recommended
11-16: Evaluate again in 4-7 days
17 or more: Add an additional 40-70 lbs. N/acre
The "re-evaluation" option is only viable until you no longer can sidedress. While a total score of 17-18 may merit 40 lb/acre N, a score of more than 18 may require higher rates. However, Illinois research has found that 50 lb N/acre was satisfactory for a wide range of conditions.
These tools are intended to serve as guides and not as definitive determination of N needs. The best tools available are your own experiences and tissue testing (although tissue testing will not give you any indication as to how much you should apply).
Remember, each field needs to be evaluated individually.
Authors: Keith Diedrick, Robert Mullen
Some producers may be noticing some pale green soybeans in their fields due to recent flooding. A lot of research, including a 12-year study published in 2001 (Schmitt et al.), shows that the addition of nitrogen fertilizer to healthy soybeans very rarely imparts a yield benefit, but how about the stressed soybeans in some parts of the state?
First of all, nitrogen fixation does not start in earnest until growth stage V2-V3 (2 to 3 trifoliate leaves) and even though the nodules may be present earlier (Bohner, 2007). To see if your nodules are active and fixing nitrogen, dig up a plant, pick off a few nodules and cut them open. If they are reddish or pink inside, they are fixing nitrogen. White, green or brown nodules are inactive. Nodules do form on roots throughout the life of the plant to about R5, not all at once early in the season. So, if very few functioning nodules are observed, wait a week and count them again. Seven to fourteen functioning nodules are necessary for optimum nitrogen supply according to research (Bohner, 2007). The pale color due to nitrogen deficiency may repair itself as conditions dry out.
Nitrogen application may be warranted if the soybeans still look pale around R1 (flowering) and there is very little nodulation. Some universities suggest a rate up to 50 pounds of N per acre for nitrogen-deficient soybeans at or after R1 (additional nitrogen provides little additional benefit) (Bohner, 2007; Ferguson et al., 2006). Right now, it is simply too early to expect any nitrogen fertilizer benefit for most soybean acres.
Bohner, H. 2007. Soybean nodulation. Available at http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/field/news/croppest/2007/10cpo07a3.htm .
Ferguson, R.B., C.A. Shapiro, A.R. Dobermann, and C.S. Wortman. 2006. Fertilizer recommendations for soybeans. University of Nebraska. Lincoln, NE. Available at http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/pages/publicationD.jsp?publicationId=146.
Schmitt, M.A., J.A. Lamb, G.W. Randall, J.H. Orf, and G.W. Rehm. 2001. In-season fertilizer nitrogen applications for soybean in Minnesota. Agronomy Journal 93:983-988.
Authors: Ron Hammond, Andy Michel, Bruce Eisley
We made numerous visits to soybean fields in northern Ohio last week to determine the current status of the soybean aphid. No aphids were found in any of the visited fields. Furthermore, no aphids have been found in any of the soybean rust sentinel plots. Although we did not sample every field in Ohio, we feel save in saying aphids are either non-existent or very low in Ohio at this time. Although aphids have been found in other states, their numbers have also been low for the most part. We still feel a combination of low aphid overwintering plus numerous beneficial insects are combining to keep aphids at low numbers. As always, we will keep an eye on the situation throughout July to see what happens because things could quickly change. Keep checking this CORN newsletter for further updates on the aphid.
A concern we have at this time, which might be more critical because of the current weed situation in a lot of fields, is the inclination for some growers who might want to “help” the situation by adding a “preventive” insecticide treatment in their late herbicide applications. We highly recommend NOT doing this! There are only two things that can or might happen. The first is you will waste money! The aphid densities are too low or non-existent in most fields. There is absolutely no reason to be treating them at this time, preventively or not. Second, because beneficial insects might be helping to keep aphid populations down, an insecticide treatment would only serve to kill off those beneficials, perhaps allowing the few aphids that might remain in a field to start multiplying easier in the coming weeks. We urge you to allow the beneficial insects to do their job by helping to keep soybean aphid below economic levels. Remember: IPM!
Authors: Jonah Johnson
Come one come all to Western OARDC in South Charleston, OH on July 8th, 2008 for their new building dedication followed by a very informative afternoon Agronomy Field Day! Western Branch’s new facility represents an investment of $850,000, which includes office space, a conference room, seed storage, and equipment maintenance shop as well as machinery storage. This grand facility will replace outdated buildings that were constructed in the mid-1960s. The dedication begins at 10:00 a.m.
Following the dedication will be this year’s “Agronomy Field Day” from 2:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.
See and talk about this year’s field conditions with OSU Extension specialists and scientists from OSU Extension and O.A.R.D.C. Topics that will be discussed are: Weed control Issues for 2008, Nitrogen Management in a Global Economy, Corn Disease Management, Current and Future Corn Insect Concerns plus specialty crop information on pumpkin and sweetcorn production!
There will be wagon transportation and free refreshments.
Please RSVP NOW for the dedication ceremony so we can plan for lunch: e-mail email@example.com, or call 330-263-3771.
Authors: Jim Noel
Locally heavy rain fell up to 6 inches in central Ohio. Most places had at least 1 inch.
Cool weather to start with some light showers today. Dry weather Tuesday into most of Wednesday. More wet weather late Wednesday into early Saturday. Some very heavy rain is again possible to put pressure on crops.
After a drier forecast this coming weekend, more chances for rain return early next week.
Warmer weather with more clusters of storm fronts.
This risk continues to be toward wetter weather over the next 20-30 days. Temperatures should average close to normal and rainfall normal to above normal. There appears to be minimal risks of hot dry weather, but there is some risk toward cooler and wetter weather on the whole.
Looking back at significant spring La Nina events, on the whole it yields cool and dry springs after wet winters. However, if we strip out 1988 and 1955 drought La Nina years, we find the other years are cool and wet into the summer. What this tells us is the North Atlantic Oscillation plays a role, and La Nina has a negative impact toward either dry or wet but not very supportive toward agriculture.
Hopefully, these wet fields will not hurt crops too much, but the unlucky ones who get these bands of heavy rains in the coming weeks will potentially get a bunch; 3 week totals of 3-6+". Normal is 3". Most will see about 3 inches over 3 weeks.
Great Lakes Manure Handling Expo - July 9th, 2008
Start Time: 8:30 am - 5:00 pm
County of Meeting Location: Madison
Name of Meeting Place: Molly Caren Agricultural Center
Meeting Place Address: State Route 40
Meeting Place Town: London, OH
Cost: Free to the public
No Private or Commercial PAT credits offered.
Meeting Coordinator Name: Mary Wicks or Jon Rausch
Phone Number: 330-202-3533 or 614-292-4504
e-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
Agenda Web Link:http://oema.osu.edu/Expo08_home.htm
OSU Extension Weed Science Tour - July 9th, 2008
Start Time: 9:00 am - 3:00 pm
County of Meeting Location: Clark
Name of Meeting Place: Western OARDC
Meeting Place Address: 7721 South Charleston Pike
Meeting Place Town: South Charleston, OH
Cost: Free to the public
Meeting Coordinator Name: Mark Loux
Phone Number: 614 - 292-9081
Pierce Paul, Anne Dorrance, and Dennis Mills (Plant Pathology), Ron Hammond, Andy Michel and Bruce Eisley (Entomology), Jim Beuerlein (Soybean & Small Grain Production), Peter Thomison (Corn Production), Robert Mullen (Soil Fertility), Mark Loux (Weed Science)and Jim Noel (NOAA). Extension Agents and Associates: Jonah T. Johnson (Clark), Roger Bender (Shelby), Howard Siegrist (Licking), Greg LaBarge (Fulton), Steve Foster (Darke), Harold Watters (Champaign), Mike Gastier (Huron), Wes Haun (Logan), Les Ober (Geauga), Steve Bartels (Butler), Alan Sundermeier (Wood), Gary Wilson (Hancock), Todd Mangen (Mercer), Steve Prochaska (Crawford), Tim Fine (Miami) and Suzanne Mills-Wasniak (Montgomery).