In This Issue:
- Liming Considerations for Late Summer and Fall
- More Soybeans with Late Season Diseases
- Searching for Western Bean Cutworm Injury on Corn
- Potassium Stress Being Noted Across the State
- Effect of Wheat Growth Habit, Seeding Rate and Row Spacing on Yield
- Optimizing Ohio’s Wheat Production Systems
- Estimating Grain Yields in Corn
- Purple Leaf Sheath on Corn
- Weather Report and Forecast
- Register Now for OEFFA Cover Crop Workshop
- Ohio No-Till Field Day, Sept. 1
- Soybean Cyst Nematode Field Night
Liming Considerations for Late Summer and Fall
Authors: Robert Mullen, Keith Diedrick
Fall is a great time to address soil fertility issues, including liming. Recent soil tests from a reputable lab will give you some guidance on how much (if any) lime would be needed. Two pH figures are reported on a soil test report: pH and buffer pH (sometimes you may see lime test index, or LTI; to convert LTI to buffer pH, divide LTI by 10). The pH figure tells you whether or not you need lime and the buffer pH value tells you how much is needed to reach the target pH preferred by future crops (see the Tri-State Fertility Guide and Ohio Agronomy Guide at https://agcrops.osu.edu/fertility/)
Raising soil pH is the goal of liming, and cost per acre should be the basis for selecting liming materials. If magnesium is deficient or low in the soils, those soils may benefit from the application of dolomitic limestone, though magnesium availability increases with increases in pH. Consider price per ton and effective neutralizing power (ENP) to compare products equally. We have an Excel calculator that will figure lime application rate and costs using your pH, buffer pH, target pH, and ENP of the material you will be using: https://agcrops.osu.edu/fertility/documents/pH_lime_rec_spreadsheet_000.xls
A few other things to keep in mind:
1. Tillage is the best way to incorporate lime, since lime is not terribly water soluble. If in a continuous no-till system, consider cutting the lime rate by half (since the tilled assumption of the lime calculator assumes 8” of soil).
1a. If in no-tillage, do not surface-apply urea within a year of lime application. Urea volatilizes much more quickly on an alkaline surface, and nitrogen is lost to the atmosphere.
2. Price per acre should be the driving force in picking products.
3. Pelletized lime is not stronger or more effective on a pound-for-pound basis than aglime of similar screen size, i.e. 300 pounds of pelletized lime will not substitute for 2000 pounds of aglime, it’s chemically impossible. See #2.
4. Calcium deficiencies are extremely unlikely in Ohio and most states in the Midwest; apply liming materials to adjust pH up, not to supply calcium (which becomes abundant at optimum pH levels). Most of our soils contain abundant amounts of available calcium, and row crop production systems only remove a small amount of calcium (200 bushel/acre corn removes around 40 pounds per acre and 50 bushel/acre soybeans remove around 50 pounds per acre). Applying any nutrient that is already sufficient will not raise crop yields, it only reduces marginal revenue. Yield increases due to “supplying calcium” are likely due to increased pH. See #2.
5. Gypsum does not raise soil pH.
More Soybeans with Late Season Diseases
Authors: Anne Dorrance
There are several causes to early yellowing and dying in soybeans. This year, manganese deficiency, Phytophthora root and stem rot, Sclerotinia white mold, brown stem rot and sudden death syndrome can all be found.
Severe manganese deficiency is present in spots, irregular areas numerous fields across the state. This is due to a combination of factors including: poor root development due to early season root rots, dry weather, and high pH. When the soils are dry, the plants can’t take up the manganese, and the symptoms develop on the leaves – the veins remain green and in between the veins starts as pale green to yellow. Under severe conditions, brown necrotic flecks will develop and the leaves can turn white. Rain will help make the element more available and the plants will get a banded appearance, where one layer of leaves will have the deficiency and the next layer of leaves will be nice and green.
Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is now appearing from the very southern part of the state to the northern areas. Foliar symptoms of this disease are the same as brown stem rot which include yellowing and browning of the leaf tissue in between the veins. The yellow is quite bright. This is a root rot disease and the fungus produces a toxin which causes the foliar symptoms. In the tap root the tissue will be gray and sometimes if the soils are damp the fungus will produce spores on the outside of the tap root – it is a blue-green in color. The pith will be white. In brown stem rot the pith will be white.
Sudden death syndrome has been linked with soybean cyst nematode. There are many studies and surveys with this aspect of the disease. Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) does enough damage on its own, but also makes the symptoms of SDS much worse. The first step in managing SDS is to manage SCN. Rotation—Rotation—Rotation—Rotation—Rotation. These fields should be planted to wheat-corn or corn-corn or if you can get some alfalfa in these fields. This drops the SCN populations by at least half/each year it is in a non-host crop. There are some varieties with resistance to SDS but this is a difficult disease to work with and with the new lines coming out there is not enough time to test. The next key to management is to improve drainage. As with many of these root rotting pathogens they are dependent on long periods of heavy wet soil, which was very prevalent in Ohio this past spring.
SCN numbers have climbed in some fields and we are detecting some early damage. As you walk across fields there are pockets of stunted soybeans which are now quite large – bigger than the size of a school bus. IN addition, we are also detecting early maturing. This symptom has not typically been linked with SCN – fields should mature evenly. Monitor those fields which mature in spots over a range of time.
Searching for Western Bean Cutworm Injury on Corn
Authors: Bruce Eisley, Ron Hammond, Andy Michel
As the growing season starts to wind down, western bean cutworm (WBCW) larval feeding injury will become noticeable on corn ears. The big question is whether there is any larval injury actually occurring in Ohio. At this time, we are not aware of any infestations. However, it would be worthwhile for growers to scout their fields for possible feeding to determine if the WBCW has established itself in Ohio corn fields. As we get into late August and early September, growers should walk through their corn and examine the corn for entrance holes into the ear. If present, holes in the husk will be noticeable. If you pull down the husks, you should see the feeding injury and perhaps larvae themselves. Remember that you might find multiple larvae per ear of corn.
For a short video on how to search for WBCW injury, go to the Agronomic Crops Insects website (http://entomology.osu.edu/ag/) or to its link within this C.O.R.N. newsletter. On that website, go to the “Corn” heading, and then to “Corn Videos”. This should pull the video up. If having problems, you can go directly to YouTube and see it at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u5EsPWySxEI. For a picture of what the larvae look like, see the video or the Agronomic Crops Insects website for images.
When sampling, remember that transgenic corn hybrids with Herculex I or Herculex Xtra will not have any injury because that material would have controlled the insect. If you grew those hybrids, check your refuge which would not have the Herculex gene. All other transgenic corn families or non-transgenic hybrids are worth sampling. We would appreciate hearing of any larval infestations that you might find. Contact your county Extension Educator or us directly.
Potassium Stress Being Noted Across the State
Authors: Robert Mullen, Edwin Lentz, Keith Diedrick
Potassium deficiencies are being noted across the state for both corn and soybean, but more noticeable in soybeans. The question being asked is why are these fields showing this deficiency? Let us first discuss what potassium deficiency looks like. Potassium deficiency typically appears as a yellowing of leaf edges on lower, older leaves that progresses from the tip to the base of the leaf (it can also be noted on newer leaves of soybeans as well, but this is not the typical). Do not confuse potassium deficiency with nitrogen deficiency which shows up as a yellowing of lower, older leaves progressing from the leaf tip to the base of the leaf, but it affects the entire leaf not just the leaf edges. Additionally, potassium deficiency plants may also have stunted growth. If you have areas that you suspect are potassium deficient collect soil samples from those areas this fall to determine a corrective course of action for next year.
So what are the likely contributing factors to the potassium stress observed this summer? There are three possible factors: 1) dry weather in certain areas of the state, 2) poor conditions at or near planting that negatively affected root development, and 3) low soil test potassium levels.
Weather trends have to be considered as dry soil conditions are being experienced in some areas of the state. As we have written before, droughty soils contribute to potassium stress due to poor root development and decreased nutrient availability. Roots are unable to extract adequate amounts of potassium from soil solution resulting in potassium stress. Potassium stress can even be observed under dry conditions when soil test reveals that adequate amounts of exchangeable potassium are present. This illustrates that providing adequate potassium nutrition is most important in less than ideal growing conditions.
Poor root development due to tough planting conditions can also contribute to increased potassium deficiencies. If you recall, spring conditions were less than ideal at certain locations for corn and soybean planting. Cool and wet conditions at planting may have diminished root development and current dry conditions have stressed these inadequate root systems to a point they are unable to extract adequate potassium for crop nutrition.
Finally, low soil potash levels may be the obvious cause. A producer needs to review their potash program for the past several years to ascertain the possibility of low soil potash. If they have followed Ohio State University recommendations (Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations), deficient soils would be unlikely -- since this program builds soil potash above a critical level and then maintains future recommendations to account for crop removal. However, some nontraditional programs may have finally ‘mined’ a soil below the critical level for optimum yield, especially a program that claims lower potash applications are acceptable because their products are more available or release more soil potash, An economic decision may have cause a recent change in a producer’s nutrient program. As you likely recall, potash prices were quite high last summer/fall and producers may have decided not to pay for potassium fertilizer. For some this was likely a wise decision, if soil test levels were well above current established critical levels (see Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations). For others that had low soil test levels to begin with, the skipped application was a risk that unfortunately is being realized now. As we often point out in Extension presentations, just because your soil test potassium level is low does not mean you are guaranteed a yield loss. It simply means you have an increased risk of yield loss. So for those acres that were not fertilized last fall or have been following a nontraditional nutrient program, you may be paying the price now.
We would encourage producers to collect soil samples this fall to ensure that soil potassium levels are adequate for any subsequent crops in the coming seasons. Remember, if your soil test level is right at or slightly below the university critical levels you may be risking yield loss in subsequent crops.
Effect of Wheat Growth Habit, Seeding Rate and Row Spacing on Yield
Authors: Pierce Paul, Rich Minyo, Jim Beuerlein
In the fall of 2008 we established a study at two locations, the Northwest branch of the OARDC and at Wooster, to evaluate the effect and interactions of variety growth habit, seeding rate and row spacing on wheat yield. The two locations were chosen because wheat plant height at the NW Branch is typically about 80 percent of the height at Wooster. We chose the Sunburst variety for its very erect growth habit, Porter Hybrids PH-47 for its intermediate growth habit and AgriPro W-1377 because of its defuse growth habit. All three varieties are of mid-season maturity, but Sunburst is about six inches shorter than the other varieties which are relatively tall. Four seeding rates, 15, 20, 25, and 30 seeds per foot of row were planted in rows spaced either 7.5 or 15 inches apart. Both test sites were planted within eight days after the fly-safe date and winter survival was excellent at both test sites.
Results: The LSD 0.10 for variety was 2.86 bu/ac indicating that W-1377 produced less yield than the other varieties. The 7.5 inch row spacing produced a significantly higher yield than 15 inch row spacing, and the two highest seeding rates produced significantly higher yields than the two lowest seeding rates. Based on this data, the most profitable seeding rate regardless of variety and row spacing was between 20 and 25 seeds per foot of row or 1,578,000 and 789,000 seeds per acre in 7.5 inch and 15 inch rows respectively. Variety, row spacing, and seeding rate would each likely have a larger effect on yield in growing seasons when yields are lower.
The effects of variety growth habit, seeding rate and row spacing on grain yield when the data from both locations are combined for analysis and viewable in table format here: http://agvanwert.wordpress.com/files/2009/08/wheat_growth_corn.pdf
Optimizing Ohio’s Wheat Production Systems
Authors: Pierce Paul, Jim Beuerlein
During the past fifteen years, Ohio’s wheat acreage has decreased a bit but the state average yield has increased from the 59 bu./ac to over 75 bu./ac resulting in only a small drop in total annual grain production. The increase in yield level is due to improved cultural practices, and higher yielding varieties with greatly improved disease resistance. Also, the weather has been more suitable for wheat production in recent years and Ohio has maintained its reputation for the highest quality soft red winter wheat produced in the Midwest.
In addition to the use of improved cultural practices in general, there has also been evoluation of the Relay Cropping System that has allowed increased yields of both the wheat and the interplanted soybeans. Due to increasing seed cost, many producers are growing wheat in rows spaced fifteen inches apart without loss of yield relative to 7.5 inch rows. Wide rows allows for the use of more precise seeding tools and more accurate seed placement than many of the grain drills typically used to plant wheat. Precise control of seeding rate allows for reduced seeding rates while achieving appropriate populations for maximum yields and a reduced seed cost. Varieties with improved disease resistance and the availability of new fungicides for disease control are greatly reducing yield loss due to disease. Due to the good wheat growing weather in 2009, many producers had fields that yielded 100 bu./ac. or more. The following activities are necessary steps toward achieving that 100 bu./ac. wheat yield:
- Variety selection should be based on disease resistance, average yield across test sites and years, winter hardiness, test weight and standability.
- Select a variety that will perform well in the environment and cultural practices that prevail. For example, If Powdery mildew is always a problem, then select a variety with resistance to that disease. If test weights are always low, then select a variety with high test weights.
- Plant after the Hessian fly-safe date to reduce risks from Hessian fly and barley yellow dwarf disease. For the most northern counties, the Hessian fly-safe date is Sept. 22, and for most southern counties the date is around Oct. 4.
- Apply 20-30 pounds of Nitrogen per acre before planting, and be sure the soil Phosphorous level is above 25 ppm and the soil pH above 6.5. Adequate Phosphorous and a neutral soil pH are extremely important for good wheat yields. Check the Agronomy Guide for fertilization recommendations based on your soil test report.
- Plant at the right seeding rate - 20 to 25 seeds per foot of row for both a 7.5 and 15 inch row spacing.
Plant at the right seeding depth (1.0 to 1.5 inches deep), and be sure the seed is covered with soil to protect the growing points of plants from the cold winter temperatures.
Estimating Grain Yields in Corn
Authors: Peter Thomison
With USDA predicting a record corn yield for Ohio (165 bu/A), many Ohio farmers will probably be interested in conducting preliminary yield assessments of their corn fields. Moreover, although some areas of the state received timely and ample rains, other areas (especially NW Ohio) have received either no rain or only trace amounts of rain in recent weeks. Fields planted in late May and June are more likely to be impacted by dry weather. In upcoming weeks, corn growers with drought stressed fields may want to predict grain yields prior to harvest in order to help with marketing and harvest plans. However, rains and a return to moderate temperatures predicted for later this week (see Jim Noel’s article) may mitigate water stress problems.
While examining ears to determine potential grain yield, growers may encounter various ear development problems that may impact yield at harvest. Troubleshooting these corn ear disorders now rather than at harvest may give growers more time to diagnose likely causes of these problems.
Two procedures that are widely used for estimating corn grain yields prior to harvest are the YIELD COMPONENT METHOD (also referred to as the "slide rule" or corn yield calculator) and the EAR WEIGHT METHOD. Each method will often produce yield estimates that are within 20 bu/ac of actual yield. Such estimates can be helpful for general planning purposes.
THE YIELD COMPONENT METHOD was developed by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Illinois. The principle advantage to this method is that it can be used as early as the milk stage of kernel development, a stage many Ohio corn fields have probably achieved. The yield component method involves use of a numerical constant for kernel weight which is figured into an equation in order to calculate grain yield. This numerical constant is sometimes referred to as a "fudge factor" since it is based on a predetermined average kernel weight. Since weight per kernel will vary depending on hybrid and environment, the yield component method should be used only to estimate relative grain yields, i.e. "ballpark" grain yields.
When below normal rainfall occurs during grain fill (resulting in low kernel weights), the yield component method will OVERESTIMATE yields. In a year with good grain fill conditions (resulting in high kernel weights) the method will underestimate grain yields.
Step 1. Count the number of harvestable ears in a length of row equivalent to 1/1000th acre. For 30 inch rows, this would be 17 ft. 5 in.
Step 2. On every fifth ear, count the number of kernel rows per ear and determine the average.
Step 3. On each of these ears count the number of kernels per row and determine the average. (Do not count kernels on either the butt or tip of the ear that are less than half the size of normal size kernels.)
Step 4. Yield (bushels per acre) equals (ear #) x (avg. row #) x (avg. kernel #) divided by 90.
Step 5. Repeat the procedure for at least four additional sites across the field.
Example: You are evaluating a field with 30 inch rows. You counted 24 ears (per 17' 5" = row section). Sampling every fifth ear resulted in an average row number of 16 and an average number of kernels per row of 30. The estimated yield for that site in the field would be (24 x 16 x 30) divided by 90, which equals 128 bu/acre.
THE EAR WEIGHT METHOD can only be used after the grain is physiologically mature (black layer), which occurs at about 30 35% grain moisture. Since this method is based on actual ear weight, it should be somewhat more accurate than the yield component method above. However, there still is a fudge factor in the formula to account for average shellout percentage.
Sample several sites in the field. At each site, measure off a length of row equal to 1/1000th acre. Count the number of harvestable ears in the 1/1000th acre.
Weigh every fifth ear and calculate the average ear weight (pounds) for the site. Hand shell the same ears, mix the grain well, and determine an average percent grain moisture with a portable moisture tester.
Calculate estimated grain yield as follows:
Step A) Multiply ear number by average ear weight.
Step B) Multiply average grain moisture by 1.411.
Step C) Add 46.2 to the result from step B.
Step D) Divide the result from step A by the result from step C.
Step E) Multiply the result from step D by 1,000.
Example: You are evaluating a field with 30 inch rows. You counted 24 ears (per 17 ft. 5 in. section). Sampling every fifth ear resulted in an average ear weight of 1/2 pound. The average grain moisture was 30 percent. Estimated yield would be [(24 x 0.5) / ((1.411 x 30) + 46.2)] x 1,000, which equals 135 bu/acre.
Because it can be used at a relatively early stage of kernel development, the Yield Component Method may be of greater assistance to farmers trying to make a decision about whether to harvest their corn for grain or silage. Keep in mind that kernel stages vary widely this year depending on when corn was planted and the variation in heat unit accumulation in different parts of the state. At the OARDC Western Agricultural Research Station near S. Charleston, corn planted in late April is presently at the R5 or dent stage, corn planted about May 20 is at the late milk (R3) to early dough (R4) stage and corn planted on June 8 is just completing silking (R1) and starting to blister (R2). Keep in mind that kernel abortion can occur as late as the R3 milk( to some extent early dough, R4) stage so yield estimates made in corn fields experiencing drought stress before this stage may overestimate corn yields. Since drought stress conditions in some fields may also result in poorly filled small ears, there may be mechanical difficulties with sheller or picker efficiency that need to be considered. When droughts occur, it’s often cheaper to buy corn for grain than to buy hay for roughage (because of likely forage deficits). Therefore, there may be greater benefit in harvesting fields with marginal corn grain yield potential for silage.
Purple Leaf Sheath on Corn
Authors: Pierce Paul, Dennis Mills
Dark spots or lesions of irregular shapes and sizes on the leaf sheath is the best description of the symptoms seen on samples coming into lab. These symptoms are typical of purple leaf sheath, an abnormality of minor importance with no known impact on grain yield. It typically develops after silking and results from pollen and other materials collecting between the stalk and the leaf sheath. This creates a moist, nutrient- rich environment that is favorable for the growth of saprophytic fungi and bacteria. The lesions are usually limited to the leaf sheath, with no infection or discoloration of the nodes and internodes of the stalk. IT IS NOT STALK ROT. There is no specific management option for dealing with purple leaf sheath.
Weather Report and Forecast
Authors: Jim Noel
First, below I have included the July climate division graphics. It was the coldest on record in Ohio in 115 years which fits into our cool summer we called for. Rainfall in July was below normal north and slightly above in the south. As a whole, the state ranked rigth in the middle of the normal range.
IMAGE 1. July Temperature Rank
Next, there are no changes to prior outlooks. We are on track for rather decent weather conditions in the next few weeks with some rain, some dry weather and some warm and cool weather.
August 17-23 - Expect warmer than normal weather with scattered showers and storms. Rainfall will be highly variable. There will be some tropical moisture that will interact with a front this week so locally heavy rains are possible.
August 24-30 - Expect a turn toward cooler than normal weather and drier conditions.
August 31 - into early Sept. - Expect at or slightly below normal temperatures and at or below normal rainfall.
Overall, the theme will continue recent trends in Ohio of slightly cooler and drier than normal but we will have fluctuations in between.
Below are several graphics that provide forecasting information. Image 2 is the temperature outlook and Image 3 is the rainfall for the rest of August for 1" probabilities. Image 4 is for 2" rain probabilities. As you can see about an 80-90% chance for most of Ohio to get an inch and close to 50% for 2" for the next 2 weeks. Normal is just below 2" in most places so at or slightly below normal rainfall. However, there will be some isolated 3-4+" rains in there with thunderstorms and tropical moisture. Any warm weather this week will trend cooler as Image 2 shows.
IMAGE 2. Temperature Outlook
IMAGE 3. 1" Rainfall Probabilities
IMAGE 4. 2" Rainfall Probabilities
Register Now for OEFFA Cover Crop Workshop
Authors: Alan Sundermeier
A free cover crop workshop on September 15 will be held at Fisher Auditorium, OARDC campus, Wooster, Ohio. Starting at 9:30 am to 3:00 pm the first 75 people to register by September 7 will receive a free lunch, handouts, and a copy of the book Managing Cover Crops Profitably: Third Edition. Presentations will be given by: Andy Clark, program educator for the national Sustainable Ag Research & Education (SARE) program; Dr. John Cardina, OARDC researcher; and Alan Sundermeier, Co-coordinator of the OSU Sustainable Ag Team. Field plots will be visited and information will be shared about benefits of cover crops, choosing the right cover crop for your farming system, and building soil fertility. The Ohio Ecological Food and Farm Association (OEFFA) , USDA SARE program, and OSU Sustainable Ag Team are sponsors.
To register, contact Laura Wies by September 7 at email@example.com or call 614-421-2022.
Ohio No-Till Field Day, Sept. 1
Authors: Alan Sundermeier
The Ohio No-Till Field Day will be Sept. 1, northern Delaware County, on the Jim and Mary Rodman farm, 6822 SR. 203, north of Radnor. (If arriving via Rt. 23, take the Norton Road Exit and go west to SR 203.The site is 0.8 mi south of Norton Road.)
The main program runs from 10:00 a.m. until after 4:00 p.m. A Spouses’ program (no additional charge) will be held off-site 11:00-3:00. And, thanks to Farm Services Agency and the OSU School of Environment and Natural Resources, three topics will be presented concurrent with the afternoon field day program.
Other sponsors/exhibitors include: Monsanto, Oregon Ryegrass Commission, Kale Marketing, Farmers Commission, Ohio’s Country Journal, CTIC, Champaign Landmark, and Parrott Implement. Twin Diamond Industries of Minden, Nebraska, will be showing their strip-till equipment, including a strip incorporator, for the first time in Ohio.
9:30: Registration (fruit, donuts and coffee)
10:00 Cover Crops: more than just a cover.
Jim Hoorman, OSU Extension, and Ed Winkle, Crop Consultant
10:30 What No-till can do for you.
Norm Widman, National Agronomist, USDA-NRCS, Washington
11:00 Conservation Management System.
Mark Scarpitti, State Agronomist, USDA-NRCS
11:15 Farmer panel: planting no-till corn. Moderator: David Brandt
Jim Sherman and two others
12:00: Lunch (included with registration)
1:00 – 4:00 Out in the Field
Three small group sessions, repeated. These are paired; 1 hr total for each pair (30 minutes each topic).
1a. Drainage control structures: Norm Fausey, USDA-ARS
1b. Soil pits: Rick Griffin and George Derringer, NRCS soil scientists
2a. Planter/drill adjustment: Bob Featheringill and Bill Lehmkuhl
2b. Strip-till, Auto-steering and RTK Networks: Tim Norris, Ag Info Tech
3a. Cover crop evaluation: David Brandt
3b. Cover crops for fertility: Jim Hoorman
4:00 Machinery demonstrations
4:00 Also, see and learn about Buffer Strips, on a neighboring farm.
Soybean Cyst Nematode Field Night
Authors: Mark Koenig
Are Soybean Cyst Nematodes stealing from your soybean yields? Are you sure you know all the signs? Dr. Anne Dorrance, OSU Extension Plant Pathologist, has been doing research on Soybean Cyst Nematodes and the different resistant packages. Sandusky County is one of the counties for her research, so this will be an excellent chance to learn about this pest. The field night will be hands on so come and learn the symptoms of Soybean Cyst Nematodes and their management.
Please join us September 16, 2009 - - 6:00 to 8:00pm at the Gary Davenport Farm, 3555 Limerick Road, Clyde, Ohio for this field night. For additional information call our office 419-334-6340 or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. Research sponsored by the Soybean Check-off Fund
State Specialists: Dennis Mills, Pierce Paul, Anne Dorrance (Plant Pathology), Ron Hammond, Andy Michel, Bruce Eisley (Entomology), Jim Beuerlein, Rich Minyo, Peter Thomison (Horticulture and Crop Sciences), Keith Diedrick, Robert Mullen (Soil Fertility), Jim Noel (NOAA). Extension Educators and Associates: Howard Siegrist (Licking), Glen Arnold (Putnam) Roger Bender (Shelby), Bruce Clevenger (Defiance), Tim Fine (Miami), Suzanne Mills-Wasniak (Montgomery), Mike Gastier (Huron), Wes Haun (Logan), Jonah Johnson (Clark), Ed Lentz (Seneca), Les Ober (Geauga), Alan Sundermeier (Wood), Harold Watters (Champaign), Mark Koenig (Ottawa/Sandusky), Steve Prochaska (Crawford)