The winter has been marked by two different states. Drier than normal northwest and wetter than normal southeast. The opposite of last winter. Guess what, last winter was a La Nina winter, this one is an El Nino, with opposite effects.
So what do we expect going forward? The answer is it will depend on a combination of El Nino, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) this spring. Negative AO and NAO spills chilly weather and usually a little drier than normal with more snow. Positive spells warmer and wetter. This winter we had some of the most negative NAO/AO in a long time. This supplied the cold and then we had some El Nino moisture rich storms bring in the moisture for the snow.
The official spring outlook for our region calls for equal chances for precipitation and temperatures.
This is a result of the uncertainty in the NAO/AO as El Nino is only one factor. El Nino would support near normal conditions for spring after a drier winter. The drier winter only happened in the northwest part of the state this winter. http://www.cpc.noaa.gov/products/precip/CWlink/ENSO/composites/
Going forward, the current outlook into spring is for slightly cooler spring with near normal rainfall. However, there is much uncertainty in this forecast until we have a better handle on the NAO and AO. The atmospheric models indicate a return from negative to neutral conditions for NAO and AO for March. This would result in near normal temperatures and normal to slightly wetter than normal. This gives you the idea that how the AO http://www.cpc.noaa.gov/products/precip/CWlink/daily_ao_index/ao.shtml and NAO http://www.cpc.noaa.gov/products/precip/CWlink/pna/nao.shtmlgoes, so will the spring outlooks go.
Some of the world climate models also indicate the pattern from winter may linger into March with a tendency toward a little cooler and wetter pattern. See following links.
We will keep you posted as we move forward. However, indications are at least for the early growing season that the chances of drought are rather low. The chances for wet conditions are higher.
Short-term: The outlook for the next 2 weeks is for colder and drier than normal conditions with some snow. However, it may begin to warm up and turn wetter toward the end of 2 weeks, around March 8-15.
The U.S. has their outlook, UK has theirs, Japan has theirs, etc.
U.S. Climate Forecasting System:
Click on Seasonal Forecasts and select Parameter: Precipitation or Surf Air Temp Anomaly
For the 2 week period use this site:
We might sound repetitive since we covered this issue in part in the January 26th edition of C.O.R.N http://corn.osu.edu/story.php?setissueID=337&storyID=1984 but with snow and water moving from fields, this is certainly not an optimal time to apply P and K fertilizers (or anything else, for that matter). In terms of frozen/cold/wet/snow-covered ground and water-soluble fertilizer products, water is the big issue in fertilizer movement. When soils are saturated and frozen, there is no water infiltration. If a major thaw event occurs (especially with deeper snow), any materials applied as a surface application have the potential to be transported off-site (i.e. lost from the field). Applications of nutrients made to frozen ground without snow have the risk of surface transport if the materials do not have time to adequately move into the soil.
To have a “safe” snow depth is really difficult to determine and varies according to soil saturation, speed of thawing, slope of the ground, etc. If it appears that a significant amount of snow melt will cause a significant amount of water to run off, then it is economically and environmentally unwise to apply the fertilizer products. Check your soil tests again and see if an application is warranted; perhaps the soggiest fields now are good for a year of crops, and a better time can be had for application of inputs.
We realize that applicators and farmers are trying to spread work out over the season, but if there’s a lot of water/snow in saturated fields, it has to go somewhere. If applications are to be made under these conditions, a setback from sensitive areas (any surface water drainage feature) should be observed. Our current research suggests a minimum of 200 feet be observed.
In recent years, requests for information on corn hybrid silage quality and yields from producers and seed company representatives have been increasing. In 2009, we continued a joint trial with Michigan State University (MSU) adding one Ohio silage location to Michigan’s two southern (Zone 1) silage locations. The Ohio test site was located in our Northwest Region at Hoytville (Wood County). The two MSU sites are located in Branch and Lenawee counties, which are on the Ohio/Michigan state line.
The test results from the three locations are treated as one region. The plots were planted with 4 row air type planters and maintained by each respective state utilizing standard production practices. The center 2 rows were harvested with MSU’s self-propelled forage harvester. Silage tests were harvested uniformly as close to half milk line as possible. Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) Quality Analysis was performed by MSU using their current procedures. Silage results present the percent dry matter of each hybrid plus green weight and dry weight as tons per acre. Other data presented include percent stand, the percentage of in vitro digestible dry matter, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude protein and starch. Milk production in pounds per ton and pounds per acre are estimated using MILK2006.
A complete summary of the trials can be found at: http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/silagetrials. More information on procedures and additional 2009 MSU silage test data can be viewed on the web at http://www.css.msu.edu/varietytrials/corn/corntrials.htm.
For more information on Ohio State’s crop variety testing, visit: http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~perf.
Valent has obtained a label for use of Belay foliar insecticide on soybeans in Ohio. Belay contains clothianidin, one of the newer neonicotinoids. This active ingredient is the same material in the newer seed treatment mentioned in the last C.O.R.N. newsletter, NipsIt INSIDE. Belay is applied at 3.0 to 4.0 fl. oz./acre.
Because Belay is a neonicotinoid, there is a restriction that a grower cannot make a foliar application of it in fields treated with a neonicotinoid insecticide seed treatment within 45 days after planting, which would include the seed treatments Cruiser (thiamethoxam), NipsIt INSIDE (clothianidin), and Acceleron IX-409, Gaucho, Latitude, and Senator (all four are imidacloprid). There is a 21 days pre-harvest (PHI).
There has been a lot of activity in the past few years focused on identifying new seed treatment fungicides and insecticides for soybeans. These are great tools for Ohio’s challenging planting conditions but a few things should be considered.
What seedling pathogens are most prevalent in Ohio.
1. Based on several surveys that we have done in the state, Phytophthora sojae and Pythium spp. are the primary component to a long list of seed and seedling pathogens. Both of these pathogens are classified as water molds, in that they require free water to form spores which can then infect seedlings. To make it a bit more interesting Phytophthora sojae is not controlled by the 0.16 fl oz of ApronXL or the 0.2 fl oz of Allegiance, the high rate is needed when there is high disease pressure. In addition, some of the Pythium spp. are also not controlled by these two fungicides, but are limited by compounds azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin.
2. Rhizoctonia and Fusarium graminearum are two additional soil borne pathogens that can also infect seeds and seedlings after planting. Infections caused by Rhizoctonia have a brick red color on the hypocotyl and brown roots while Fusarium infections tend to be bright pink and “fuzzy”. The mycelium is quite visible on the decaying plant tissue. These fungi are controlled by different active ingredients, specifically fludioxonil, PCNB and a new active ingredient ipconazole.
3. Phomopsis is a seed borne fungal disease of soybeans. This is an intermittent problem due to variety susceptibility as well as rains during harvest. Seeds that are infected have a chalky appearance. But this is one that for some seed lots the germination can be immensely improved with the addition of seed treatment. Lots that start with 70% germination should not be used for seed. We are still in a “catch-up” phase to look at which materials provide good control. In the most recent seed treatment fungicide chart you will see ND – to indicate we are still working on this. Fortunately we had a couple of our own seed lots that we use for experiments get hit with Phomopsis this year so we can begin to evaluate this parameter.A new seed treatment chart is posted at http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/ohiofieldcropdisease/
which illustrates what some of the new products will control based on the date that we currently have.
Jim Beuerlein now retired Soybean and Wheat Extension specialist for the Ohio State University made his final presentation recently in the department of Horticulture & Crop Sciences. Jim gave his overview of what has occurred in production in the past 40 years in Ohio and made some remarks as to what may be expected in the future. The presentation was recorded and can be viewed at http://presenter.cfaes.ohio-state.edu/link/HCS_804_1-29-10_-_Web_%28800x600%29_-_20100129_01.25.29PM.html.
- Glen Arnold (Nutrient Management Field Specialist),
- Roger Bender, ret. (Shelby),
- Greg LaBarge (Agronomy Field Specialist),
- Mike Gastier (Huron),
- Mark Koenig (Sandusky),
- Ed Lentz (Hancock),
- Jeff McCutcheon (Morrow),
- Bruce Clevenger (Defiance),
- Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA (Agronomy Field Specialist),
- Suzanne Mills-Wasniak (Montgomery)
- Jim Noel (NOAA/NWS),
- Keith Diedrick (Soil Fertility),
- Robert Mullen (Soil Fertility),
- Peter Thomison (Corn Production),
- Ron Hammond (Entomology),
- Andy Michel (Entomology),
- Bruce Eisley (Entomology),
- Anne Dorrance (Plant Pathologist-Soybeans),
- Dennis Mills (Plant Pathology),
- Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA (Agronomy Field Specialist)