C.O.R.N. Newsletter 2011-38

Dates Covered: 
October 31, 2011 - November 7, 2011
Editor: 
Curtis Young

Do You Have a Favorite CCA?

Certified Crop Advisers (CCAs) are the folks who make your crop production recommendations; they work at the co-op, the ag retailer, the seed supplier, the fertilizer dealer, the independent crop advisor, or the OSU Extension office.  The Ohio CCA Board is looking for the best CCA in Ohio for 2011, if she or he works with you or for you, then please nominate them. 

The Ohio CCA Program is sponsoring one state award titled "Ohio Certified Crop Adviser of the Year."  The award program is designed to recognize an individual who is highly motivated, delivers exceptional customer service for farmer clients in nutrient management, soil and water management, integrated pest management and crop production, and has contributed substantially to the exchange of ideas and the transfer of agronomic knowledge within the agricultural industry in Ohio. 

The purpose of this award is to increase the awareness that both farmers and their service people strive to do their best in making cropping decisions that are economically and environmentally sound.  A CCA must meet the standards set by the American Society of Agronomy (ASA) and maintain that certification through continuing education.  They also sign a code of ethics pledging to do their best to operate in the best interests of their client.  Together a farmer and a CCA make a team that is working to manage an economically viable business while practicing responsible stewardship.  This is a win/win approach for both farmers and CCAs. 

Eligibility for CCA of the Year:

*  Nominee must hold a current Ohio CCA certification and be in good standing.

*  Nominees will be evaluated on the basis of the information provided in the nomination, and for the finalists from participation in an interview.

*  Resubmittal of previous nominations acceptable as long as they are on current nomination form.

*  Former recipients of the Ohio Excellence in Crop Advising Award are not eligible. 

The Ohio Certified Crop Adviser of the Year Award will be presented at the 2012 Conservation Tillage Conference on March 6th in Ada, Ohio.  The state award includes a plaque, recognition in industry publications, and a $1500 cash award from the agronomic input industry. 

Nomination forms due December 1, 2011 to Ohio CCA Board c/o Ohio AgriBusiness Association, 5151 Reed Rd., Suite 200-A, Columbus, Ohio 43220-2598, Email: Info@OABA.net.  The nomination form is available on the AgCrops website: http://go.osu.edu/CCAofYear.

Nominate your CCA by December 1, 2011.

Reducing Water Quality Concerns in Phosphorous Application.

A news release issued on October 17 (http://www.agri.ohio.gov/public_docs/news/2011/10.17.11%20wleb%20announcement%20final.pdf) highlights some current work being done by a variety of groups interested in agriculture and water quality including farmers, industry and agencies. The working group assembled by ODA, OEPA and ODNR is developing recommendations on immediate actions that can be taken by agriculture to reduce phosphorous loading into Lake Erie. The full background on this effort can be found at the following website http://www.agri.ohio.gov/topnews/waterquality/.  

Phosphorous is back as a water quality concern, but it is not the same problem that Ohio farmers played an important role during 1980's in reducing phosphorus loading with the adoption of conservation tillage. The issue today is more complicated and while absolute answers are not available, implementation of best management practices will help keep phosphorous on fields where we want to keep it for crop production. 

The issue of phosphorous in the 1960's and 1970's was related to the total phosphorous load going into lake systems across the state. While multiple sources of P were targeted, the majority of this loading from an agriculture standpoint was sediment bound phosphorous that eroded from fields via sheet and rill erosion. A shift to no-till and conservation tillage crop production methods left a protective residue cover over soil, reducing erosion while lowering phosphorous levels in water. Reducing other sources of P from sewage treatment, detergents and multiple other sources were focused on as well. The health of the lake improved. 

Today's phosphorous problem leading to harmful algae blooms finds it roots an increased level of dissolved reactive phosphorous (DRP) in Ohio's waters that have been observed since the  mid 1990's. The levels of DRP have increased in spite of observations of steady total phosphorous levels equal to that of the mid 1980's entering Lake Erie. To mitigate the role that agriculture plays in the overall phosphorous levels, we will need to rely on implementation of BMP's in fertilizer and manure application. 

In this fall fertilization season some practices that are thought to help keep the phosphorous were we want it in the plant root zone are:  

1)      Soil testing. The key to an effective soil sampling program is being able to provide the laboratory a representative sample of the cropping area that a fertilizer recommendation is desired for. Characteristics of a representative sample are a single composite soil sample of 15 individual cores representing no more than 20 acres.  The bulked sample should be thoroughly mixed with a subsample packaged and sent to the lab. Many laboratories participate in blind testing programs that test their procedures against known samples. When selecting a lab ask about results of these types of programs. Laboratories are very efficient and effective in processing soil samples sent to them for processing. More information on phosphorous soil testing can be found at: https://agcrops.osu.edu/specialists/fertility/fertility-fact-sheets-and-bulletins/Soil_Tests.pdf/at_download/file  

2)      Phosphorous fertilizer recommendations from Ohio State University Extension follow a buildup/maintenance approach. The critical phosphorous soil test levels are 15 PPM (30 pounds per acre) for corn/soybeans and 25 PPM (50 pounds per acre) for wheat/alfalfa. Fertilizer recommendations for corn (Table 1) and soybeans (Table 2) are listed below. The Tri State Fertilizer Recommendations publication can be found at: http://ohioline.osu.edu/e2567/index.html  

Table 1. Fertilizer P Recommendations for Corn. (adapted from Tri-state Fertilizer Recommendations for Corn, Soybeans, Wheat and Alfalfa)

 

Realistic Yield Goal (bu/acre)

Soil Test Level

100

120

140

160

180

PPM (lb/acre)

lbs P2O5/acre recommended

5 (10)

85

95

100

110

115

10 (20)

60

70

75

85

90

15-30 (30-60)

35

45

50

60

65

35 (70)

20

20

25

30

35

40 (80)

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

 

Table 2. Fertilizer P Recommendations for Soybean. (adapted from Tri-state Fertilizer Recommendations for Corn, Soybeans, Wheat and Alfalfa)

 

Realistic Yield Goal (bu/acre)

Soil Test Level

30

40

50

60

70

PPM (lb/acre)

lbs P2O5/acre recommended

5 (10)

75

80

90

100

105

10 (20)

50

55

65

75

80

15-30 (30-60)

25

30

40

50

55

35 (70)

10

15

25

25

30

40 (80)

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

 

3)      To answer the question "What do you mean do not put any P on, won't my soil test drop?"  The answer to this question is a two part answer. First yes, soil test levels will drop, but if you are above the crop response range for the crop it really is not a problem crop production wise. If you are above 30 PPM there is no yield benefit and if you are way above this level there is an economic benefit to using this soil stored P. The second part of the answer is soil test do not drop 1 to 1 with crop removal. A 150 bushel corn crop removes (150 bushel * 0.37 Crop removal = 56 lbs). Phosphorous chemistry in the soil buffers the crop removal so that for each 15-20 lbs of P2O5 removal phosphorous levels in the soil are lowered 1 PPM. So our 150 bushel crop will lower the soil test at most 3 PPM. 

4)      Application placement and timing should be an important consideration in making nutrient applications. Keeping nutrients on the land preserves the nutrients for their intended purpose of providing for plant growth. Most of the nutrients being added to water courses in Ohio are coming from 4-7 rainfall events during the year.

·         Avoid snow covered and frozen soils for broadcast fertilizer or manure applications. The potential for nutrient enriched runoff is very high with either snow melt or with heavy rainfall.

·         Avoid surface applications without incorporation. Minimally invasive tillage helps reduce nutrient runoff risk. Even with plant residues on the surface, while runoff volumes are reduced, nutrient concentration of the water are not reduced.

·         Plan fertilizers and manure applications prior to tillage activities. 

Additional discussion on BMP's for reducing Phosphorous Loss can be found at: https://agcrops.osu.edu/specialists/fertility/fertility-fact-sheets-and-bulletins/AGF-509-09.pdf/at_download/file

Other practices can be beneficial in reaching the goal of lowering nutrients in particular phosphorous in Ohio's water courses. The industry has taken to discussing fertilizers application as the 4 R's or Four Fertilizer "Rights". These four "Rights" are not independent of each other but incorporated as a system where decisions in one area affect the "Rights" in another area. For more information on the fertilizer "Rights" see http://www.tfi.org/issues/Nutrient%20Use/NutrientUseEfficiency.cfm  

1)      Right Source- Match fertilizer type to crops needs

2)      Right Time- Match nutrient availability to when the crop needs them.

3)      Right Place- Keep nutrients where crops can use them.

4)      Right Rate- Match amount of fertilizer to crops needs.

2012 Ohio Commercial Pesticide Applicator Recertification Conferences Set.

Next year's Ohio Commercial Pesticide Applicator Recertification Conference dates have been set.  While the events are a couple of months out, take the opportunity to get them in your calendar today.  Here are the dates:  January 31, 2012, Kalahari Conference Center, Sandusky; February 8, 2012, John S. Knight Center, Akron; February 15, 2012, Dayton Convention Center; and March 8, 2012, Columbus Convention Center.

 

 

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About the C.O.R.N. Newsletter

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.