C.O.R.N. Newsletter 2011-41

Dates Covered: 
December 6, 2011 - December 20, 2011
Editor: 
David Dugan
Soybean Season Wrap Up: Part II

Soybean Season Wrap Up: Part II

This was a very challenging year to conduct research.  The challenges that occurred at planting, delayed planting, heat during the season, and then more rain right before harvest led to a tough year.  With these conditions it is challenging to assess what the affects on stand or yield were from the pathogen, the treatments we applied or what was just due to weather.  Across the nine different fields that we had plots in this summer, variation is the rule and it is making it very difficult to point changes in yield directly at the treatment. 

Here is a brief list of what the OSU Soybean pathology lab evaluated this past summer for Ohio producers:  Efficacy of seed treatments towards key seed and seedling pathogens (Rhizoctonia, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium virguliforme, Phytophthora sojae, Pythium spp.);  efficacy of seed treatments on the changes in SCN populations; evaluation of planting SCN resistant varieties on changes in SCN populations and root pathogens associated with high SCN populations; evaluation of the sudden death syndrome differentials to Ohio fungal populations; effect of resistance and rate of active ingredient for management of Phytophthora damping-off; effect of seeding rate on late planted soybeans with high rate of seed treatment; as well as the effect of fungicides for management of Sclerotinia white mold.  This work was done with the awesome assistance of county educators Alan Sundermeier, David Dugan, Bruce Clevenger, producers in Defiance, Wood, Pike, and Brown Counties; OARDC research staff, funding from soybean check-off dollars to Ohio Soybean Council, North Central Soybean Council, OARDC, and numerous companies.  Over the next few series of articles we will take a look at the results from 2011.

a)     Sudden Death Syndrome.  This fungal pathogen infects roots early in the growing season during wet conditions.  However, symptom development does not typically occur until the plant reaches the end of its reproductive phase, unless inoculum levels are high, and weather is especially favorable.  This past season we planted a set of lines that were identified in Illinois as susceptible, moderately susceptible, resistant and highly resistant to this fungus.  The location used also has soybean cyst nematode, which is another key pathogen that when SCN and the SDS fungus are both present, symptoms of SDS become well developed.  Symptoms of SDS developed prior to flowering this year in the field.  This was due to the continued heavy rains shortly after planting.  Areas of the field with very high populations of SCN were stunted.  Each of the lines developed symptoms of SDS similar to the resistance score for what has been reported from other studies.  Within the north central soybean research program, there is a team that evaluates germplasm annually for resistance to SDS.  The results of these studies indicate that we can readily use the results from the Illinois trials to make decisions here in Ohio. 

b)   Rate of seed treatment.  We evaluated the rate and efficacy of numerous seed treatments this past year.  For the vast majority of these trials, there was no significant difference in 2011.  When we could get into the fields, conditions were typically very good with warm, dry soils.  Our irrigated field study, at Northwest branch, showed resistance levels to P. sojae in the variety was the most important factor this year.    We evaluated the 0.16, 0.32, and 0.64 fl oz/cwt of Apron XL on Sloan (moderate partial resistance), Conrad (high partial resistance) and Kottman (Rps1k, Rps3a plus high partial resistance).  Fungicides had no effect this year on early stand or yield at two locations (P>0.3).  However variety was highly significant (P<0.0001) for final yields.  Yields of Kottman were greater than Conrad which was greater than Sloan.  Resistance to P. sojae provided from 30 to 65% more yield in the resistant varieties compared to the susceptible variety at these two locations in 2011.  We have shown over a number of years that seed treatments will be effective in reducing the impact of damping-off, but that the best resistance package of an Rps gene combined with high levels of partial resistance provides consistent performance over years. 

Yield by Rps resistance

Rain Now, then Drier

The outlook for this week calls for heavy rain from early week to turn toward a colder and drier pattern for the second half of the week as another storm clips southeast Ohio Wednesday into early Thursday. Rainfall from this week will average 1-2 inches across most of the area with southwest Ohio to central Ohio getting in the  2-3 inches range.

Next week will see more some more rain across the state of Ohio with a chance of mixed precipitation northwest by Tuesday and Wednesday.  Rainfall totals of 0.5 to 1.0 inches are possible with this system but there is a high degree of uncertainty. It could be less next week.

Overall, temperatures will be colder than it has been recently and it will not be as wet as the last 30-days over the next 1-2 weeks but there will still be some weaker systems so it will not be totally dry. We should have a break from much precipitation from mid-week this week until early to mid-week next week overall.

Longer range the trend is still supportive of wetter conditions than normal through winter with some flooding for Ohio as we have been discussing the last several months.

West Ohio Agronomy Day

The January 9, 2012 West Ohio Agronomy Day hosts speakers from both Purdue and Ohio State University Extension as well as a top soil scientist and an aerial application expert.  Daytime and evening sessions offer a comprehensive crop production agenda while providing private pesticide applicator recertification credits as well as Certified Crop Advisor (CCA) credits; the location is the same as last year at St. Michael's Hall in Ft Loramie, Ohio.

Want to make better use of your pesticide investment?  Dr. Fred Whitford from Purdue wrote the book, “The impact of WATER QUALITY on PESTICIDE PERFORMANCE” and is an excellent speaker.  Interested in the future of guidance technology?   Dr. Scott Shearer, Chair of Ohio State's Food, Agriculture and Biological Engineering Department plans to provide insight that might challenge your thoughts that the biggest equipment is best for your farm.

What's bugging your corn and soybeans?  OSU Extension Entomologist Dr. Andy Michel will share the research that should help you better allocate your investment dollars in corn hybrid traits and soybean insecticide applications.  George Derringer, USDA-NRCS Soil scientist plans to dig deep into the subject of microbe feeding to enhance the health of your soil.  Pilot Ray Cunningham of Agriflite will share tips on how to choose your next aerial applicator.

To start, the 8:30 am or 5:30 pm grain marketing presentations kick off the programs.  Area Extension personnel and other experts are also on the program to share details on weed resistance strategies, weather data systems,  an update on Grand Lake St. Mary's and the 4 R's of fertiizer use.   Registration and attendance also includes a free OSU Extension publication, Purdue Extension bulletin and additional handouts.  Over 20 agricultural businesses supported the program in 2011.

For registration and a tentative agenda, please contact Harold Watters by email watters.35@osu.edu or (937) 484-1526 in the Champaign County Extension office. 

2011 Ohio Soybean Performance Trial Report Available

This years weather was difficult from a management standpoint, but was great for variety testing. Stress brought about by the variable weather conditions, really kicked up varietal differences, when there were differences. Beginning this year, LSD's are reported at  0.1 (previously they were reported at 0.3). Some maturity groups showed significant differences while others showed little to no difference between varieties. Remember single site yields can only be compared between varieties within a maturity group at one location.  Regional yields can only be compared to the regional yield of varieties within that maturity group. Two year averages can only be compared  to other two year yields within that maturity group. The difference between two varieties is only significant if it is greater than the LSD with 90% assurance. One interesting note is that several tests were topped by experimental entries not published in the results.  The 2011 OSPT data can be found at http://oardc.osu.edu/soy2011.

2011 Ohio Corn Performance Test: An Overview

In 2011, 251 corn hybrids representing 32 commercial brands were evaluated in the Ohio Corn Performance Test. Four tests were established in the Southwestern/West Central/Central (SW/WC/C) region and three tests were established in the Northwestern (NW) and North Central/Northeastern (NC/NE) regions (for a total of ten test sites statewide).  Hybrid entries in the regional tests were planted in either an early or a full season maturity trial. These test sites provided a range of growing conditions and production environments. 

Environmental conditions varied considerably across Ohio during the 2011 growing season, especially with regard to the amount and distribution of precipitation. Excessive rainfall in April and May delayed planting –four test sites were planted in mid-May; four in late May, and two in early June. Nevertheless, yields at the late planted sites far exceeded expectations. At some of the test sites planted in May (Van Wert and Washington CH), stand reductions occurred due to excessive soil moisture. Saturated soil conditions resulted in seedling blights and limited early season root development resulting in shallow root systems. Several sites (Van Wert, Greenville, and Upper Sandusky) experienced warmer and drier than average conditions from June through July. However, major yield loss to water stress was usually limited by timely rains and adequate soil moisture. Other test sites received adequate rainfall that was well distributed throughout the growing season. Rainfall was above normal at all test sites in September during late grainfill and maturation. 

Performance data for Van Wert in the NW region and for the early maturity trial at Washington CH in the SW/WC/C region were not reported because heavy rains shortly after planting resulted in excessive soil moisture that that led to major stand reduction. Several locations, including Wooster, Hoytville and Upper Sandusky, experienced widespread root lodging due to strong winds in mid-July. However nearly all the affected corn recovered and showed little evidence of root lodging at harvest. A period of high temperatures in July had little effect on crop performance because it either preceded pollination or timely rainfall and adequate soil moisture limited adverse effects. Yields were highest at Hebron in the Central region and Upper Sandusky in the NW region (averaging nearly 250 bu/A) and lowest at Greenville in the WC region (averaging slightly less than 180 bu/A). In contrast to 2010, below average temperatures and persistent rains during late grain fill in September delayed crop maturation and resulted in much higher than normal grain moisture at harvest. Despite varying degrees of stress present at several sites, stalk lodging was negligible – averaging no more than 5% at any location. Extensive foliar disease (primarily northern corn leaf blight) was evident late in the season at several locations but impact on crop performance appeared to be limited. 

Tables 1 and 2 provide an overview of 2011 hybrid performance in the early maturity and full season hybrid trials by region. Averages for grain yield and other measures of agronomic performance are indicated for each region. In addition, the range in test site averages is shown in parentheses. Complete results are available online at: http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~perf/ and http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/corntrials/

As you review 2011 test results, it’s important to keep the following in mind. Confidence in test results increases with the number of years and the number of locations in which the hybrid was tested. Avoid selecting a hybrid based on data from a single test site, especially if the site was characterized by abnormal growing conditions (like late planting). Look for consistency in a hybrid's performance across a range of environmental conditions. In addition to 50% silking dates, differences in grain moisture percentages among hybrids at harvest can provide a basis for comparing hybrid maturity.  Low levels of stalk lodging this year provide a limited basis for making comparisons of stalk quality among hybrids. Yield, % stalk lodging, grain moisture, and other comparisons should be made between hybrids of similar maturity to determine those best adapted to your farm. Results of the crop performance trials for previous years are also available online at:  http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~perf/archive.htm   

 

Table 1.   A regional overview of the early maturity 2011 Ohio Corn Performance Test.

 

Region

 

Entries

Grain Yield

(Bu/A)

Moisture

(%)

Lodging

(%)

Emergence

(%)

Final Stand

(plants/A)

Test Wt.

(lbs/bu)

SW/WC/C

48

 

225

(204-241)

19.8

(17.2-21.5)

3

(0-23)

95

(85-99)

37400

(32300-40600)

57.8

(53.4-61.1)

NW

77

 

224

(199-243)

21.3

(19.0-24.3)

1

(0-12)

95

(79-100)

36000

(30100-40000)

55.8

(50.3-58.9)

NE/NC

71

 

227

(206-247)

19.7

(18.0-21.7)

1

(0-5)

95

(81-99)

31600

(25400-36300)

57.7

(53.8-60.9)

  

Table 2.  A regional overview of the full season 2011 Ohio Corn Performance Test.

 

Region

 

Entries

Grain Yield

(Bu/A)

Moisture

(%)

Lodging

(%)

Emergence

(%)

Final Stand

(plants/A)

Test Wt.

(lbs/bu)

SW/WC/C

106

 

229

(209-254)

20.6

(18.1-24.6)

2

(0-17)

95

(81-99)

37100

(31300-41200)

57.3

(53.0-60.3)

NW

86

 

238

(218-259)

23.4

(20.2-26.8)

1

(0-5)

95

(79-100)

36500

(30900-41000)

54.3

(50.8-59.3)

NE/NC

53

 

232

(197-231)

20.9

(19.2-23.1)

1

(0-5)

97

(90-100)

32000

(27000-35500)

56.7

(53.4-60.6)

Genuity VT Double PRO approved for Refuge in the Bag

The EPA has just received approval for their Genuity VT Double PRO product to be planted with a refuge in the bag (RIB) strategy.  With the RIB, refuge plants are blended with the transgenic plants such that there is no need to plant a separate refuge; in this case the refuge is set at 5%.  This product contains the genes Cry1A.205 and Cry2Ab2, which offers control for European corn borer, corn earworm and fall armyworm.  Note that this product does not control western bean cutworm, nor does not offer any control against western corn rootworm.  Nonetheless, this product could be useful in certain areas of Ohio where these pests are less of a concern and where planting a separate refuge might be difficult. 

 

 

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About the C.O.R.N. Newsletter

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.