In This Issue:
- 2013 Herbicide Update
- You May Need to Take Action to Receive Next Corn Newsletter in 2013
- 2012 Northwest Ohio Corn Silage Test
- More Yield from Your Fields – Increase Plant Available Water
- Ohio Tobacco Production Update
- West Ohio Agronomy Day Jan. 14
- SW Ohio Corn College
- Calendar for 2013 Agronomy Meetings, Seminars and Workshops
- Introductory & Advanced Agronomy Workshops February 19 & 20
Pyroxasulfone is a new active ingredient for residual control of annual grasses and certain small-seeded broadleaf weeds. It can be found in several products that were recently labeled for use in corn, and several of these will be labeled for use in soybeans in the near future as well. Mode of action of pyroxasulfone is similar to the acetamides - a group 15 seedling growth inhibitor. Pyroxasulfone controls most annual grasses, pigweed, waterhemp, lambsquarters, and black nightshade, and also has fair activity on common ragweed and velvetleaf at higher rates. The spectrum and length of control is dependent upon rate, as with most herbicides. The premix products that contain pyroxasulfone are geared for use in a planned preemergence followed by postemergence program. The lower pyroxasulfone rate in these products is generally not intended to provide full-season weed control, and also results in reduced control of some broadleaf weeds. Several companies have access to pyroxasulfone, but it appears that some can sell it only as a premix product, while others can sell it as a stand-alone product. The pyroxasulfone products and uses that are approved at this time (December) are listed below.
Anthem (FMC) is a premix of pyroxasulfone and fluthiacet-methyl (Cadet) for preplant/preemergence use on corn. Fluthiacet does not provide residual weed control, so the spectrum of control is due to pyroxasulfone alone (identical to Zidua). Anthem ATZ, a premix of pyroxasulfone, atrazine, and fluthiacet, should be registered in the near future. We had not seen a label for either product at the time that this was written.
Fierce (Valent) is a premix of pyroxasulfone and flumioxazin (Valor) for preplant use in field corn. Similar to the Valor label, Fierce has to be applied at least 7 days before corn planting, and can only be used in no-tillage conditions. This product controls annual grasses, pigweeds, waterhemp, lambsquarters, velvetleaf, smartweeds, and black nightshade, and controls/suppresses common ragweed. Fierce should be available for use in soybeans in the near future, along with Fierce XLT, which is essentially a premix of pyroxasulfone and Valor XLT.
Zidua (BASF), pyroxasulfone, is labeled for preplant or preemergence use in all types of corn – field, seed, sweet, and popcorn. Zidua should generally be mixed with another herbicide that has broadleaf activity regardless of whether it is a preemergence or preemergence plus postemergence program. Zidua can also be applied early postemergence, but should be mixed with other herbicides that control emerged weeds.
Major changes here include two new mesotrione premixes from DuPont, and some reformulating and renaming of Syngenta products. Lexar and Lumax have been subject to minor reformulating, and are now Lexar EZ and Lumax EZ. Camix, the premix of mesotrione and s-metolachlor, has been renamed Zemax. New Dupont mesotrione products include the following:
Instigate, a mixture of mesotrione and rimsulfuron, is labeled for preplant, preemergence, and early postemergence use in field corn. Instigate provides residual control or suppression of annual grass and broadleaf weeds, and has activity on emerged weeds. Application of this product alone will generally not be adequate in either a total preeemergence or preemergence followed by postemergence herbicide program. A mixture of Instigate plus an atrazine premix should have burndown activity that is similar to Lexar and Lumax, as well as similar residual weed control. Can be applied postemergence through the 2-collar corn stage, and should be mixed with COC or MSO plus UAN or AMS when used for control of emerged weeds. Interactions between this product and soil-applied insecticides can result in corn injury – check the label for restrictions.
Realm Q, a mixture of mesotrione and rimsulfuron, is labeled for postemergence use in field corn. This product contains isoxadifen, a safener that reduces the risk of crop injury. Realm Q can be applied up to 20-inch corn and prior to the 7-collar stage. Controls small grass (less than 2 inches) and broadleaf weeds, but should generally be mixed with glyphosate, Liberty, or another herbicide for broad-spectrum postemergence control. Preferred adjuvant system is COC or MSO plus UAN or AMS, although NIS can be substituted for COC/MSO. Additional NIS is not needed when mixing with a loaded glyphosate product. Interactions between this product and soil-applied insecticides can result in corn injury – check the label for restrictions.
Soybean Herbicide premixes
Intimidator (Loveland/CPS) is a premix of s-metolachlor, fomesafen (Reflex), and metribuzin for preplant or preemergence use in soybeans. Activity is similar to a mixture of Prefix plus metribuzin. Intimidator provides broad-spectrum weed control but will be generally less effective for residual control of giant ragweed compared with other broad-spectrum soybean herbicides (Valor XLT, Gangster, Sonic, Authority XL, etc). The addition of a few ounces of metribuzin 75DF will improve marestail control, especially where the lower rates of Intimidator are used.
Matador (Loveland/CPS) is a premix of metolachlor, imazethapyr (Pursuit), and metribuzin for preplant or preemergence use in soybeans. A use rate of 2 pints/A would be typical in a planned preemergence followed by postemergence soybean herbicide program. This rate provides the equivalent of 1 lb ai/A of metolachlor, 3 oz/A of metribuzin 75DF, and 2 oz/A of Pursuit 2L. Matador provides broad-spectrum weed control but will generally less effective for residual control of ragweeds and marestail compared with other broad-spectrum soybean herbicides (Valor XLT, Gangster, Sonic, Authority XL, etc). Mixing this product with additional metribuzin 75DF will improve residual marestail control, and also burndown of some weeds.
Major changes with saflufenacil products within the past year or so include the addition of higher soybean burndown rates and planting restrictions, and one new product. Sharpen can now be applied at rates up to 2 oz/A in soybean burndown programs, and higher rates can improve burndown and residual broadleaf weed control. As Sharpen rates increase above 1 oz/A, the minimum interval between application and soybean planting increases. For soils with more than 2% organic matter, the minimum delay between Sharpen application and planting: 1 oz – anytime before emergence; 1.5 oz – 14 days; 2 oz – 30 days. Similar changes have occurred for Verdict use rates in soybeans. The 5 oz Verdict rate can be applied anytime before crop emergence, while rates of 7.5 and 10 oz/A must be applied 14 and 30 days before planting, respectively. On soils with 2% or less organic matter, the minimum interval between Sharpen or Verdict application and planting is 30 or 44 days even at lower rates.
Optill PRO, which is a copack of Optill plus Outook. The use rate of the copack provides the equivalent of 2 oz of Optill and 10 oz of Outlook per acre. The addition of Outlook improves control of annual grasses, pigweeds, waterhemp, and black nightshade. Outlook PRO can be applied anytime prior to cracking, or soybean emergence.
There have been some changes in the status of the labels for mixing saflufenacil products with other PPO-inhibiting herbicides since last spring. Labels in effect currently state that saflufenacil cannot be mixed with the following herbicides: flumioxazin (Valor, Valor XLT, Envive, Enlite, Gangster, Fierce); or fomesafen (Prefix, Intimidator). In addition to the prohibition of mixing, a period of 30 days must separate the application of any of these and the application of saflufenacil. Several products containing sulfentrazone can still be mixed with saflufenacil, and these include: Sonic, Authority First, and Authority XL.
More information on weed and herbicide management can be found in numerous publications available at no charge on the OSU Weed Management website, https://agcrops.osu.edu/specialists/weeds/weeds/. There is a charge for the Weed Control Guide for Ohio and Indiana (although the online pdf is free), which can be purchased from OSU county extension offices, online at the OSU Extension eStore
(http://estore.osu-extension.org/index.cfm), or by calling the OSU publications office at 614-292-1607.
Do you have an e-mail spam filter, either through your e-mail clients or internet service provider? These are often set up to filter out mass e-mails sent to your address. With over 3,000 subscribers , some e-mail clients or providers will place the CORN newsletter in that category. As of the January issue we will be changing our e-mail server which will put a new address of corn-out @lists.service.ohio-state.edu as the from address. If in the past you had to tell either your e-mail client (Microsoft Outlook, Outlook Express, Windows Live Mail), webmail site (Gmail, Yahoo Mail), or ISP (RoadRunner, Frontier, Embarqmail) that it was ok to deliver the CORN newsletter to your inbox, you may need do that again.
The first 2013 newsletter is scheduled to go out on January 15 , 2013, If you do not receive this newsletter look for it in your junk e-mail folder. Check with your email client or ISP for specific settings instructions to allow this e-mail to reach you.
In 2012, 47 corn silage hybrids representing 14 commercial brands were evaluated in a joint trial with Michigan State University (MSU). One Ohio location is combined with Michigan's two southern (Zone 1) silage locations. The Ohio test site was located in our Northwest Region at Hoytville (Wood County). The two MSU sites are located in Branch and Lenawee counties, which are on the Ohio/Michigan state line. In 2012, the Lenawee county plots will not be published due to extreme drought stress. The test results from the two 2012 locations are treated as one region. The plots were planted with 4 row air type planters and maintained by each respective state utilizing standard production practices. The center 2 rows were harvested with MSU’s self-propelled forage harvester. Silage tests were harvested uniformly as close to half milk line as possible. Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) Quality Analysis was performed by MSU using their current procedures. Silage results present the percent dry matter of each hybrid plus green weight, and dry weight, as tons per acre. Other data presented include percent stand, the percentage of in vitro digestible dry matter, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude protein and starch. Milk production in pounds per ton and pounds per acre were estimated using MILK2006 (UW-Madison Dairy Science Department).
A complete summary of the Ohio results is available online at: http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/silagetrials. More information on procedures and additional 2012 MSU silage test data can be viewed on the web at http://www.css.msu.edu/varietytrials/corn/corntrials.htm. For more information on Ohio States crop variety testing, visit: http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~perf.
Water, either too much or too little, may be the single most important factor in determining crop yields when other production factors such as genetics, seeding rate, planting date, fertility, weed, insect and disease control, etc. are held constant. For example, 200 bushel corn will need about 22 inches of plant available water. Plant available water is that portion of the soil water that can be taken up by plants and is generally about 50% of the water holding capacity of a soil. From 19 to 23 inches of rain can be expected on average during the growing season (April- September) for most of Ohio. However, as we all know, the rainfall distribution may result in either wet or dry soil conditions and not all of the rain that does fall during the growing season enters into the soil. Given the fact that tile drainage is essential to remove excess water; what cultural practices can a producer implement to increase plant available water? Research conducted at OARDC provides insight into management to increase plant available water.
Table 1. Effect of Tillage and Soil Cover on Water Infiltration on Dry Soil (Wooster Silt Loam) Under Simulated Rainfall
Water Infiltration Rate after 1 Hour (in/hour)
Total Infiltration after 1 Hour (inches)
Plowed, disked, cultivated, bare surface
No-tillage, bare surface
No-tillage, 40% cover
No-tillage, 80% cover
Source: Ohio Agronomy Guide: 12th Edition
Various tillage systems may increase water infiltration by breaking up compacted soil layers (compacted clay soils have very low water infiltration rates), aid in the creation of a seed bed, and improve weed, insect and disease control. However, tillage may also have negative impacts on water infiltration through the breaking of soil aggregates and associated reduction in large pores that may hold water. This is reflected in the data of Table 1. Retaining a level of plant residues was beneficial in this study to increasing water infiltration. There are various tillage systems available that may leave crop residue that will aid in increasing water infiltration and in refilling the soil water bank. Cover crops, if managed appropriately, may also aid in water infiltration.
On Ohio soils with low organic matter where soil crusting is prone to occur, stand establishment and water infiltration may both be affected. These soils may benefit (if not deeply compacted) from shallow tillage systems that leave significant residue on the soil surface.
In conclusion, plant available water will be a function of: 1. Water infiltration; 2. Soil structure; 3. Soil organic matter; 4. Soil type; and 5. Plant rooting depth. Through management, a producer can influence 4 out of the 5 factors that may increase plant available water and perhaps result in higher yields.
Tobacco production has been in a steady decline since the late 1990s in the United States, and Ohio has seen the same reduction in producers and acres of tobacco. The big change happened in 2004 when the mandatory “buyout” happened. The buyout ended the quota system that had been in place since the 1930s. The quota system was based on acres until the early 1970s when the quota was transitioned over to pounds. Quotas were tied to farms and considered an asset. Land owners who did not produce tobacco often leased their pounds to a producer wanting to grow more tobacco. Crop share production was very common, too. The “buyout” eliminated all of this. No more leasing, crop share or quotas.
The post buyout production is mainly direct marketing with tobacco companies. However, there are still some auctions in operation, which prior to the buyout was the standard method of marketing the crop. The direct marketing required a contract. In the short time that this has been the method producing and selling the crop, producers have seen some difficult and dark times.
The price for tobacco was significantly lower after the buyout. The average just prior to the buyout was in the $1.90 to $2.05 per pound range. In the next few years the price dropped to the $1.50 range. Keep in mind there was no lease to pay for additional pounds or crop share. Producers could produce as much as they wanted as long as they could get a contract. The contract did not guarantee a sale if the tobacco produced was low quality.
In 2010, the definition of low quality could be found in much of the crop. Tobacco has two seasons, one where it grows in the fields, and the second season is when it cures in the barns or other curing structures. In 2010 the second season was less than ideal to say the least. Tobacco needs alternating periods of wet and dry conditions to cure properly. In 2010 we had a very dry fall for most of Southern Ohio. The very dry curing season produced a low quality crop.
Some producers had lost contracts for one reason or another prior to 2010, but the low quality crop that year made things even worse. Many producers took their crop to market only to be told that the crop was not marketable. In time most of the crop was bought, but at a greatly reduced price. Several producers sold their crop for less than half of the production costs. Several producers decided that they had produced tobacco for the last time as a result of this. Many of those who stayed in production saw a reduction in the number of pounds offered on their contract. Some were not offered contracts.
In 2011, we saw just the opposite. The crop had much better curing conditions and the crop was in high demand. A number of producers were offered additional pounds for the following year.
In 2012, we are seeing an even higher demand, due to lower burley production in some parts of the world. Many producers are reporting prices at or above prices prior to the buyout in 2004. Tobacco is somewhat of a dry weather crop. A few timely rains will make a successful crop, and for most of the Ohio crop, 2012 had enough rain to produce a high yielding crop. Reasonably good conditions during curing have resulted in one of the better quality crops in recent years. The demand for tobacco is projected to remain strong in the coming year. Several producers have reported being offered additional contract pounds for 2013, however world production is also expected to increase, so prices in 2013 may not be as strong. As we move forward, the future tobacco market and prices will most likely not be as stable as they have been in the past. Global production will be more of a factor, just as it is with many other parts of production agriculture.
The West Ohio Agronomy Day will be held on Monday, January 14th at St. Michael’s Hall in Fort Loramie. The day will begin at 7:30 a.m. with a “Listening Session” and breakfast sponsored by the Ohio Soybean Association, followed at 8:30 a.m. by an update from the grain marketers of Cargill and Trupointe Cooperative.
The programs dealing with Private Pesticide Applicator Recertification Credits for farmers and Continuing Education Units for Certified Crop Advisors then begins at 9:00 a.m.
Once again, Purdue’s Dr. Fred Whitford (AKA “Fred from Purdue”) will be with us, this time talking about “Keeping the Trailer Hitched to the Truck.” This year’s line-up will also see Dr. Robert Mullen from Potash Corporation presenting on Phosphorus and Nitrogen Management as it relates to Soil Fertility and Dr. Terry Niblack from OSU discussing nematodes in corn and soybean cyst nematodes. Dr. Laura Lindsay, also from OSU, will talk about Using all the Tools of the Trade in Maximizing Soybean Production. Additional topics to be addressed include cover crops, resistant weed management, fumigation, manure management and fly control, etc. Pesticide Recertification Credits are available in CORE and Categories 1, 2, and 6. Five (5) CCA credits are available.
We will also be holding the same program/same categories that evening beginning at 5:30p for those not able to attend during the day.
Farmers who want to recertify their private pesticide applicator’s license should go online at http://pested.osu.edu to either register with a credit card or to download the form to pay by check. Forms may also be picked up at any Ohio Extension office. If not registered online, the completed form can be submitted with the $35 fee on January 14.
For those just wanting to attend for the information (and the fellowship!), the cost is $10 if signed up by January 7th to be paid at the door on January 14. A single call to 937-498-7239 or email to email@example.com saves you Five Bucks!
Wednesday, January 16, 2013 the Clinton County Extension office will be hosting an all-day Corn College program. This High impact program is designed for producers wanting to be on the “Cutting Edge” of corn production for their operations.
The program will consist of the following topics:
-Closing the Yield Gap – What Will it Take to Achieve 300 Bushel Corn Yields in 2030?
-Nitrogen Reactions in the Soil and How They Relate to Nitrogen, and a Look at Nitrogen Additives, Do They Help Reduce loss.
-Cost Benefits of Fungicidal Use in Corn Production.
-How Cover Crops Can Enhance Profitability.
-Nitrogen Sources and What is the Optimum Nitrogen Rate. Does Soil Type, Plant Population and Hybrid Matter? The Advantages and Disadvantages of Most Commonly Used Sources of N.
-A Glance at Output Costs for the Coming Production Year.
CCA Credits are available : NM = 1.0 SW = 2.0 PM = 0.0 CM = 2.0 PD = 1.0
Speakers will include: Dr. James Camberato, Associate Professor, Agronomy Department, Purdue University. Dr. Peter Thomison, Professor, Horticulture and Crop Science, Ohio State University. Dr. Pierce Paul, Associate Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, The Ohio State University/OARDC. Alan Sundermeier, Ohio State University Extension Educator – Wood County. Barry Ward, Assistant Extension Professor, Leader Production Business Management.
The Corn College is Wednesday, January 16, 2013 from 8:30 AM to 4:00 PM at the Clinton County Extension Office Community room, 111 S. Nelson Ave., Wilmington, Ohio. Cost is $50. This will include the program, some excellent resources, handouts, refreshments and lunch. To register, send a check for $50.00 payable to OSU Extension; mail to OSU Extension, Clinton County, Corn College, 111 S. Nelson Avenue, Suite 2, Wilmington, Ohio 45177. For more information about the Corn College, contact OSU-Extension Clinton County Educator Tony Nye at (937) 382-0901 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Agronomic Crops Team Calendar Page is updated with a number of meetings going on around the state to catchup on the latest information for your farm or business. The calendar page at https://agcrops.osu.edu/calendar has information with dates, locations and agendas. If you need more information on individual meetings contact information is provided. Corn, soybean and wheat production, weed control and weed resistance management, nutrient decisions, tillage and soil management all revolving around the topic of moving yield and profitability higher are the theme around which these programs are built. Most meeting require pre-registration and have a minimal cost so check out the calendar today and also check after the first of the year as more meeting are being finalized.
Also if you are looking for Private Pesticide Applicator credit some of the program provide this opportunity or a complete listing of the traditional recertification programs for the state can be found at http://pested.osu.edu/privaterecert.html.
Two agronomic crop workshops will be offered in late February at the Wooster campus of OSU/OARDC at the Fisher Auditorium. These workshops continue the every two year update from the Plant Pathology and Entomology folks in Wooster. This year Laura Lindsey, the new Extension Soybean & Small Grains Specialist, will be joining the group to provide a day of basic field crop management class, greenhouse and lab hands-on experience. Day two will go the next step to provide more advanced training.
Join Anne Dorrance, Ron Hammond, Pierce Paul and Andy Michel along with Laura from 9 to 3 on February 19 for the Introductory workshop; the group again builds on the basics of the day before with the February 20th workshop on Advanced Field Crop Management also from 9 AM to 3PM. The price of each workshop is $35; you may register on-line with a credit card for the event of your choice. You may attend either or both events.
Click this link for the agenda: Wooster Agronomy Workshops 2013
Feb. 19th Introductory Field Crop Management
Registration link: http://www.regonline.com/builder/site/?eventid=923251
Feb. 20th Advanced Field Crop Management Workshop
Registration link: http://www.regonline.com/builder/site/?eventid=1180508
- Glen Arnold (Nutrient Management Field Specialist),
- Bruce Clevenger (Defiance),
- Sam Custer (Darke),
- Amanda Douridas (Champaign),
- Nathan Douridas (FSR Farm Manager),
- Mike Gastier (Huron),
- Ron Hammond (Entomology),
- Laura Lindsey (Soybeans and Small Grains),
- Andy Michel (Entomology),
- Pierce Paul (Plant Pathology),
- Eric Richer (Fulton),
- Adam Shepard (Fayette)
- Mark Loux (Weed Science),
- Greg LaBarge (Agronomy Field Specialist),
- Rich Minyo (Corn & Wheat Performance Trials),
- Allen Geyer,
- Peter Thomison (Corn Production),
- Steve Prochaska (Agronomy Field Specialist),
- David Dugan (Adams, Brown, Highland),
- Debbie Brown (Shelby),
- Tony Nye (Clinton),
- Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA (Agronomy Field Specialist)