C.O.R.N. Newsletter 2013-02

Dates Covered: 
January 29, 2013 - February 13, 2013
Editor: 
Harold Watters

Winter Wheat Condition

With lack of snow cover and most of the state experiencing single digit temperatures last week, there have been a few questions regarding the condition of winter wheat in Ohio. Right now, most of the wheat in Ohio looks fine. In northwest Ohio and in the Wooster area, most of the wheat was in good condition before winter began and fortunately there have been minimal periods of standing water and ice. However, in western Ohio, there have been some reports of leaf “burn” from cold winds.

Air temperatures are on the rise early this week followed by cooler conditions by the end of the week. Warm-up followed by cold weather can negatively affect yield, especially if wheat was planted late. In the fall, wheat stores some carbohydrates in the crown. Late-planted wheat does not have time to produce and store as much carbohydrate before the weather turns cold. Warm-up/cold cycles tend to use up stored carbohydrates and reduce winter-hardiness.

However, winter wheat is a cold season grass that can tolerate fairly harsh weather conditions.  Wheat “hardens” in the fall to acclimate to cold conditions. Cold acclimation is variety-dependent and requires a period of growth when temperatures are between 30° and 60°F followed by slowly declining soil temperatures. After hardening, wheat can tolerate temperatures between 0 and 10°F especially when there is good snow cover. The growing point of wheat is below ground until conditions are warm in the spring, but extremely cold conditions can still cause damage to the plant. However, plants are only killed by low temperatures if the crown (lower stem) is damaged. 

 

What we did last summer

The Soybean Pathology Program spent a lot of time on the road last summer evaluating different management practices for Ohio’s prominent soybean pathogens.  To be honest, drought conditions are not conducive to most plant pathogens and with the dry weather following planting and the erratic emergence we don’t have a lot to report.  These years are always good to get some baseline data.  We planted 1,676 plots to evaluate material in 39 tests from 10 companies in addition to our own field tests.  These plots spanned 11 field sites across 9 counties in Ohio.

The following is a list of where we did find some differences.

1) Sudden Death Syndrome. This disease is caused by a fungus and some new data from Leonor Leandro at Iowa State University suggests that infections actually occur shortly after planting.  We also know that symptoms and effects of this disease are enhanced when infections occur in the presence of soybean cyst nematode.  We evaluated 148 MG III entries in a field with SCN egg counts ranging from 200 to 2,000 eggs/cup of soil. SDS developed at this location and 60% of the entries developed no symptoms or a trace amount.  This is very encouraging to see that more lines have high levels of resistance to this root pathogen.

2) Soybean cyst nematode – we were able to assess yield differences between SCN resistant and SCN susceptible varieties at one location, where there was a 35% yield difference or loss from planting a susceptible variety. For other locations, all of the varieties were resistant and there were no significant differences among the treatments that we evaluated.  We are still processing fall soil samples from 210 plots - as soon as those are complete we will have more reports.  We planted 876 plots to SCN and SDS tests.

3) Seed treatments for Phytophthora sojae and Pythium spp.  We evaluated 108 different treatments at the Phytophthora field at OARDC Northwest Research Station.  This study, which had 600 plots, received very minor disease pressure.  This is the first year that our cross aisles, which are planted to a super susceptible variety did not all die.  Despite this low disease pressure, we did get a significant difference for seed treatment in one study.  Yield from seed of a susceptible variety, which was treated with ApronXL at 0.64 fl. oz/cwt, had significantly higher yield (9 bu/A) than that of the nontreated. Yields were also significantly different at a second location for seeding rate study, seed treatment, and a variety evaluation. 

4) We also evaluated the efficacy of fungicides towards other soil borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia, Fusarium graminearum); foliar pathogens (frogeye leaf spot) and Sclerotinia stem rot (white mold).  Many of these compounds have not been labeled nor has the final formulation been developed.  Our Sclerotinia field had less than 20% disease – mostly down in the 3% range for both nontreated and treated areas of the field.  Frogeye leaf spot developed in parts of the field with 3 to 18% of the leaf area affected on individual leaves.  Yield loss could be measured in some areas of the field with a 4.5 and 7 bu/A difference between treated and non-treated areas of the field.  All of the fungicides reduced the incidence and severity of frogeye leaf spot.   

All of this would not be possible without the awesome collaborations we have with the OARDC Farm staff at Northwest, Western and here in Wooster as well as the county educators, crop consultants and more importantly the producers who give us access to their “problem” fields.  

Adapting Agriculture to Extreme Weather, Ohio S&W Conservation Winter Meeting

The winter meeting topic of the Ohio Chapter of the Soil and Water Conservation Society will be: “ Adapting Agriculture to Extreme Weather”.  Featured speakers will be Dr. Lonnie Thompson, Distinguished Professor with the Byrd Polar Research Center on:  “Global Climate Change: Glaciers, Agriculture and People”.  Also Jeff Rodgers, Ohio State Climatologist on : “ Ohio Weather & Climate Trends”.  Dr. Brent Sohngen, OSU Professor of Economics on:  “The Economics of Adapting to Climate Change”.  Also Extension Educators will give presentations on :  “Farmer Attitudes & Survey Data on Weather and Climate”, “ Carbon, Climate & Terms”,  “Adapting Agriculture to Extreme Weather”, “ Climate Change & 21st Century Agriculture”.

The meeting will take place on February 6, 2013 starting at 8:30 am to 3:30 pm located at the Ohio Department of Agriculture Headquarters, 8995 E. Main St., Reynoldsburg, Ohio.

 Cost is $35 payable to All Ohio Chapter SWCS, mail to John Armentano, 3635 Dayspring Drive, Hilliard, OH  43026 or call 937-483-8581.

Intensive Soybean Workshop, Shelby County February 7th

Hands-on Learning for Soybean Pest Scouting and Management Updates - 2013

Join OSU Extension as we present an intensive soybean workshop for western Ohio crop producers. This Sidney, Ohio workshop will help you become a more profitable soybean producer. This workshop will feature Dr. Laura Lindsey who is Ohio State’s new Soybean/Small Grain Extension Specialist; Dr. Andy Michel, Ohio State University, Field Crop Extension Entomologist; and Dr. Anne Dorrance, Ohio State University’s Field Crop Extension Pathologist.

The topics which will be discussed during this workshop include: Agronomic factors to maximize yield, Hands on evaluation of soybean yield components, What’s “bugging” soybeans, Identification of key insects, Thresholds and insecticide timing, Stink Bugs-the new bug in town, Key soybean diseases for northeast Ohio, Pathogen biology, Local research results, Genetic disease resistance, Foliar fungicides, Seed treatments, and Hands-on identification of soybean pests and diseases. This will be a great opportunity to see our major pests and diseases up close and to learn how to properly identify them.

Let Debbie know by February 5th that you are coming. The advanced registration is also needed as there is a 28 person limit in the room. Pay your $50 at the door, with check, made to OSU Extension, or cash.

February 7 – Shelby County Agriculture Center, 820 Fair Rd., Sidney, OH

9:30a – 3:30p

The Day’s Agenda:

9:30a:  Welcome

9:40a:  Laura Lindsey, Extension Soybean & Small Grain Specialist

•          Agronomic factors to maximize yield

•          Hands on evaluation of soybean yield components

11:00a:  Break

11:10a: Andy Michel, Field Crop Extension Entomologist

•          What’s “bugging” soybeans

•          Identification of key insects

•          Thresholds and Insecticide timing

•          The new bug in town:  stink bugs

12:00n:  Lunch

1:00p:  Andy Michel concludes

•          What’s “bugging” soybeans

•          Identification of key insects

•          Thresholds and Insecticide timing

•          The new bug in town:  stink bugs

1:30p:  Break

1:40p:  Anne Dorrance, Field Crop Extension Plant Pathologist

•          Key soybean diseases for your region

•          Pathogen biology

•          Local research results

•          Genetic Disease resistance

•          Foliar Fungicides and Seed Treatments

•          Hands on ID of Soybean Pests and Diseases

3:15p:  Wrap-Up

3:30p:  Adjourn

CCA Credits applied for: 

3 hours of Pest Management, 1.5 hours of Crop Management

 Cost for the Day, payable at the door:  $50.00. Includes lunch, hand-outs, packet of materials.

Reserve your spot by February 5th with Debbie Brown, Shelby County Agriculture & Natural Resources educator, by email: brown.1522@osu.edu, or phone 937 498-7239. Class size is limited to 28.

 

Introductory & Advanced Agronomy Workshops February 19 & 20

Two agronomic crop workshops to be offered in late February at the Wooster campus of OSU/OARDC at the Fisher Auditorium. These workshops continue the every other year update from the Plant Pathology and Entomology folks in Wooster. This year Dr. Laura Lindsey, the new Extension Soybean & Small Grain Specialist, will be joining the group to provide a day of basic field crop management with class, greenhouse and lab experience. Day two will go the next step to provide more advanced training.

 Join Anne Dorrance, Ron Hammond, Pierce Paul and Andy Michel along with Laura from 9 to 3 on February 19 for the Introductory workshop; the group will build on the basics of the previous day with the February 20th workshop on Advanced Field Crop Management also from 9 AM to 3PM. The price of each workshop is $35; you may register on-line with a credit card for the event of your choice. You may attend either or both events. Please register by February 12th.

Click this link for the agenda: Wooster Agronomy Workshops 2013

 Registration:

Feb. 19th Introductory Field Crop Management

Registration link: http://www.regonline.com/builder/site/?eventid=923251       

 Feb. 20th Advanced Field Crop Management Workshop

Registration link: http://www.regonline.com/builder/site/?eventid=1180508

Registrations may also be made with Teresa Funk, Phone: (614) 292-4077 Fax: (614) 292-3747 E-Mail: funk.67@osu.edu.

 

Spring Nitrogen Decisions for High Yield Wheat, Findlay, OH – February 13

Latest research and university recommendations will be discussed for nitrogen rates, timing, source, loss inhibitors, and other issues affecting nitrogen management in wheat. Program will be held at the Hancock County Agricultural Service Center, February 13, 10:00 a.m. to noon. No registration required. Free to the public. CCA credits have been requested for Nutrient Management. Contact Ed Lentz at 419-422-3851 or lentz.38@osu.edu for additional information.

 

Advanced Corn Production Workshop, Findlay, OH – February 26

This all day in-depth workshop will address topics relating to yield and diagnostics, such as ear development and growth abnormalities, seed treatments and biotechnology for insect management, and nitrogen management and utilization. Workshop will be held at the Hancock County Agricultural Services Building, Findlay, OH, February 26 from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Cost: $50 for materials, lunch, CCA credits and hands-on activities. Instructors will be Dr. Peter Thomison, Dr. Andy Michaels, and Dr. Ed Lentz. Registration required by February 19; class limited to first 25 paid participants. Registration flyer may found at the following website: https://hancock.osu.edu. Contact Ed Lentz at 419-422-3851 or lentz.38@osu.edu for additional information.

 

 

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About the C.O.R.N. Newsletter

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.