In this issue:
- Herbicide Update for 2014 Crops
- Corn Hybrid Selection Decision for 2014
- Herbicide Resistance and Weed Management Resources
- 2013 Northwest Ohio Corn Silage Test
- Register Now for the Ohio CCA Exam Preparation Class
- Forage Production School Workshop Series
- Agronomy Programming-January, 2014
- West Ohio Agronomy Day for January 13
Brief descriptions of herbicides introduced over the past year or so are provided here. As readers are undoubtedly aware, there is currently almost no development of new active ingredients. Most of the products mentioned here are premixes of existing herbicides. Some of these seem to have a fit for Ohio situations while others do not in our opinion. We have also posted a brief Powerpoint video that covers this on our website – https://agcrops.osu.edu/specialists/weeds.
Pyroxasulfone is a new active ingredient for residual control of annual grasses and certain small-seeded broadleaf weeds. It can be found in several products that were labeled for preplant/preemergence use in corn and soybeans over the past year or so. It can also be applied early postemergence in corn, but only for residual control of later-emerging weeds, not control of emerged weeds. Mode of action of pyroxasulfone is similar to the acetamides - a group 15 seedling growth inhibitor. Pyroxasulfone controls most annual grasses, pigweed, waterhemp, Palmer amaranth, lambsquarters, and black nightshade, and also has fair activity on common ragweed and velvetleaf at higher rates. The spectrum and length of control is dependent upon rate, as with most herbicides. The premix products that contain pyroxasulfone are geared for use in a planned preemergence followed by postemergence program. The lower pyroxasulfone rate in these products is generally not intended to provide full-season weed control, and also results in reduced control of some broadleaf weeds. Several companies have access to pyroxasulfone, but it appears that some can sell it only as a premix product, while others can sell it as a stand-alone product. The currently available pyroxasulfone products and uses are listed below.
Zidua (BASF), pyroxasulfone, is labeled for preplant or preemergence use in soybeans and all types of corn – field, seed, sweet, and popcorn. Zidua should generally be mixed with another herbicide that has broadleaf activity regardless of whether it is a preemergence or preemergence plus postemergence program. Zidua can also be applied early postemergence, but should be mixed with other herbicides that control emerged weeds.
Anthem (FMC) is a premix of pyroxasulfone and fluthiacet-methyl (Cadet) for preplant/preemergence/early postemergence use in corn. Fluthiacet does not provide residual weed control, so the spectrum of control is due to pyroxasulfone alone (identical to Zidua). Anthem ATZ is a premix of pyroxasulfone, atrazine, and fluthiacet. Both products can be used in any type of corn.
Fierce (Valent) is a premix of pyroxasulfone and flumioxazin (Valor) for preplant use in field corn, and preplant/preeemergence use in soybeans. Similar to the Valor label, Fierce has to be applied at least 7 days before corn planting, and can only be used in no-tillage conditions. It can be applied preplant or no later than three days after soybean planting, and prior to crop emergence. This product controls annual grasses, pigweeds, waterhemp, lambsquarters, velvetleaf, marestail, smartweeds, and black nightshade, and controls/suppresses common ragweed. Control of marestail is from the flumioxazin alone, so control of this weed is not improved with Fierce compared with Valor. The same can be said for most of these other broadleaf weeds as well, since Valor already has substantial activity on most of them, and so the pyroxasulfone ends up contributing primarily grass control. Fierce can be more effective for residual control of waterhemp and Palmer amaranth compared with Valor. Fierce XLT should be available for use in soybeans in the near future, and is essentially a premix of pyroxasulfone and Valor XLT.
Corn and Soybean Premixes
Callisto GT (Syngenta) is a premix of mesotrione (Callisto) and glyphosate for postemergence use in glyphosate-resistant corn. It can be applied until corn is 30 inches tall or the V8 stage, whichever occurs first.
Authority MAXX (FMC) is a premix of chlorimuron (Classic) and sulfentrazone (Spartan/Authority) for preplant/preemergence use in soybeans. The ratio of sulfentrazone to chlorimuron is higher in this product compared with Authority XL, but the spectrum of control and other characteristics are similar between the two products. Due to the lower rate of chlorimuron in Authority MAXX, the crop rotation restrictions are not pH-dependent, which differs from most other chlorimuron products.
Intimidator (Loveland/CPS) is a premix of s-metolachlor, fomesafen (Reflex), and metribuzin for preplant or preemergence use in soybeans. Activity is similar to a mixture of Prefix plus metribuzin. Intimidator provides broad-spectrum weed control but will be generally less effective for residual control of giant ragweed compared with other broad-spectrum soybean herbicides (Valor XLT, Gangster, Sonic, Authority XL, etc). The addition of a few ounces of metribuzin 75DF will improve marestail control where the lower rates of Intimidator are used.
Marvel (FMC) is a premix of fomesafen (Reflex) and fluthiacet (Cadet) for postemergence use in soybeans. The rate of fomesafen is fairly low in this product and the spectrum of control for fluthiacet is narrow. The 7.25 oz rate contains the equivalent of 10 oz of Reflex and 1 oz of Cadet. Marvel is apparently intended for use in mixtures with glyphosate in Roundup Ready soybeans to help control glyphosate-resistant weeds, primarily glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus species. This product has no activity on marestail.
Matador (Loveland/CPS) is a premix of metolachlor, imazethapyr (Pursuit), and metribuzin for preplant or preemergence use in soybeans. A use rate of 2 pints/A would be typical in a planned preemergence followed by postemergence soybean herbicide program. This rate provides the equivalent of 1 lb ai/A of metolachlor, 3 oz/A of metribuzin 75DF, and 2 oz/A of Pursuit 2L. Matador provides broad-spectrum weed control but will generally less effective for residual control of ragweeds and marestail compared with other broad-spectrum soybean herbicides (Valor XLT, Gangster, Sonic, Authority XL, etc). Mixing this product with additional metribuzin 75DF will improve residual marestail control, and also burndown of some weeds.
Pummel (MANA) is a premix of metolachlor and imazethapyr (Pursuit) for residual control of weeds in soybeans. It is generally intended for preplant/preemergence use but can also be applied early postemergence. This product may have limited fit in Ohio since it provides little to no control of marestail, and postemergence activity is due to an ALS-inhibiting herbicide. When used preplant/preemergence, Pummel should be mixed with metribuzin to ensure residual marestail control.
Torment (MANA) is a premix of imazethapyr (Pursuit) and fomesafen (Reflex) for preplant, preemergence or postemergence use in soybeans. This product provides little to no control of marestail preemergence, and none postemergence. Spectrum of control is otherwise fairly broad, but this product may be most appropriate for the management of glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus species.
Labels for all saflufenacil products, Sharpen, Verdict, and Optill PRO, currently still prohibit mixtures with other PPO-inhibiting herbicides – flumioxazin (Valor, Envive/Enlite, Gangster, Fierce), sulfentrazone (Authority products, Sonic), and fomesafen (Prefix, Vise, Torment). Applications of saflufenacil should be separated from application of the other PPO inhibitors by at least 30 days. The other major change for Sharpen and Verdict has been the addition of higher rates in soybeans. The higher rates have improved the length of residual marestail control in OSU research, even with the labeled waiting period between application and planting for these rates. Sharpen can now be applied at rates up to 2 oz/A in soybean burndown programs. For soils with more than 2% organic matter, the minimum delay between Sharpen application and planting: 1 oz – anytime before emergence; 1.5 oz – 14 days; 2 oz – 30 days. Similar changes have occurred for Verdict use rates in soybeans. The 5 oz Verdict rate can be applied anytime before crop emergence, while rates of 7.5 and 10 oz/A must be applied 14 and 30 days before planting, respectively. On soils with 2% or less organic matter, the minimum interval between Sharpen or Verdict application and planting is 30 or 44 days even at lower rates.
Hybrid selection is one of the most important management decisions a corn grower makes each year. It’s a decision that warrants a careful comparison of performance data. It should not be made in haste or based on limited data. Planting a marginal hybrid, or one not suitable for a particular production environment, imposes a ceiling on the yield potential of a field before it has been planted. In the Ohio Corn Performance Test (OCPT) (http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/corntrials/) it is not unusual for hybrid entries of similar maturity to differ in yield by 80 bu/A, or more, depending on test site.
Growers should choose hybrids best suited to their farm operation. Corn acreage, previous crop, soil type, tillage practices, desired harvest moisture, and pest problems determine the relative importance of such traits as drydown, insect and disease resistance, herbicide resistance, early plant vigor, etc. End uses of corn should also be considered - is corn to be used for grain or silage? Is it to be sold directly to the elevator as shelled grain or used on the farm? Are there premiums available at nearby elevators, or from end users, for identity-preserved (IP) specialty corns such as food grade or non-GMO corn? Capacity to harvest, dry and store grain also needs consideration.
The following are some tips to consider in choosing hybrids that are best suited to various production systems.
1. Select hybrids with maturity ratings appropriate for your geographic area or circumstances. Corn for grain should reach physiological maturity or "black layer" (maximum kernel dry weight) one to two weeks before the first killing frost in the fall. Grain drying can be a major cost in corn production. Use days-to-maturity, growing degree day (GDD) ratings, and harvest grain moisture data from performance trials to determine differences in hybrid maturity and drydown. One of the most effective strategies for spreading risk, and widening the harvest interval, is planting multiple hybrids of varying maturity.
2. Choose hybrids that have produced consistently high yields across a number of locations. Choosing a hybrid simply because it contains the most stacked transgenic traits, or possesses appealing cosmetic traits, like “flex” ears, will not ensure high yields; instead, look for yield consistency across environments. Hybrids will perform differently based on region, soils and environmental conditions. Growers should not rely solely on one hybrid characteristic, or transgenic traits, to make their product selection. Most of the hybrids available to Ohio growers contain transgenic insect and herbicide resistance. However, the 2013 OCPT reveal that there are some non-transgenic hybrids suitable for non-GMO grain production with yield potential comparable to the highest yielding stacked trait entries. Nevertheless, when planting fields where corn rootworm (RW) and European corn borer (ECB) are likely to be problems (in the case of RW - continuous corn and in the case of ECB - very late plantings), Bt traits offer outstanding protection and may mitigate the impact of other stress conditions. For more on Bt traits currently available, check out the “Handy Bt Trait Table” (http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/cullenlab/files/2013/11/Handy_Bt_Trait_Table.pdf) from Michigan State University and the University of Wisconsin.
3. Plant hybrids with good standability to minimize stalk lodging (stalk breakage below the ear). This is particularly important in areas where stalk rots are perennial problems, or where field drying is anticipated. If a grower has his own drying facilities and is prepared to harvest at relatively high moisture levels (>25%), then standability and fast drydown rates may be somewhat less critical as selection criteria. There are some hybrids that have outstanding yield potential, but may be prone to lodging problems under certain environmental conditions after they reach harvest maturity. In 2013, stalk lodging was a problem in many fields harvested after October 31 when storms accompanied by strong winds contributed to stalk breakage.
In 2013, many Ohio fields experienced root lodging and mid-season stalk breakage (aka “greensnap” or “brittlesnap”) injury due to strong winds on July 10 (https://agcrops.osu.edu/corn/newsletters/2013/2013-22/wind-damage-to-corn-and-prognosis-for-recovery). We are typically much less concerned about hybrid response to wind damage during the growing season than growers are in the western Corn Belt where wind damage is far more common. However, 2013 is the third consecutive year in which we have experienced wind damage across a fairly large swathe of the state during the mid to late vegetative stages. Plants in most root lodged fields recovered within 1 to 2 weeks after this wind event. However some hybrids, especially those planted at higher seeding rates, still exhibited extensive root lodging damage at harvest. In the OCPT, there was considerable variability among hybrids for greensnap damage. Greensnap is relatively rare in Ohio. However, since greensnap may result in stalk breakage near or at the base of plants, yield losses can be appreciable. Corn growers should consult with their seed dealer on hybrid sensitivity to root lodging and greensnap.
4. Select hybrids with resistance and/or tolerance to stalk rots, foliar diseases, and ear rots. Consult the Ohio Field Crops Diseases web page online at http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/ohiofieldcropdisease/ for the most common disease problems of corn in Ohio. In recent years, several diseases have adversely affected the corn crop - including northern corn leaf blight, gray leaf spot, Stewart’s bacterial leaf blight, and Gibberella and Diplodia ear rots. Corn growers should obtain information from their seed dealer on hybrid reactions to specific diseases that have caused problems or that have occurred locally.
5. Never purchase a hybrid without consulting performance data. Results of state, company, and county replicated hybrid performance trials should be reviewed before purchasing hybrids. Because weather conditions are unpredictable, the most reliable way to select superior hybrids is to consider performance during the last year and the previous year over as wide a range of locations and climatic conditions as possible. Hybrids that consistently perform well across a range of environmental conditions, including different soil and weather conditions, have a much greater likelihood of performing well the next year, compared to hybrids that have exhibited more variable performance. To assess a hybrid’s yield averaged across multiple Ohio test sites consult the “Combined Regional Summary of Hybrid Performance” tables available online at http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/corntrials/.
We have currently started the second year of a three-year partnership of ag industry, USB, and a number of land grant universities to provide education and resources for managing herbicide site of action and mitigating herbicide resistance. This is resulting in some additional free publications for use by agronomists, growers, CCA’s, etc. A list of what we have available – or will soon – follows. Examples of the first four can be found on https://agcrops.osu.edu/specialists/weeds, either in the “News of Interest” or the “Herbicide Resistance Information” sections – let us know if you would like a supply of any of these.
“Herbicide Classification Chart”, “Take Action”, and “Know Your Weeds” single page/posters. We have lots of these available in roughly a 20x30 size (glossy paper), and will be making some foam core posters that are about twice this large. The smaller size would be suitable for distributing to clientele, while the larger would be suitable for the wall of a business or office.
“Control of Marestail in No-till Soybeans”. We expanded this fact sheet to 4 pages so that it provides more comprehensive information. Can be downloaded and printed as needed, and we will be printing 2000 of these as well.
“Weed Control Guide for Ohio and Indiana”. Can be downloaded free as a pdf from OSU or Purdue weed science websites. Hard copy available for purchase at many OSU Extension county offices by early January. Available on December 20 for purchase at the OSU Extension estore - http://estore.osu-extension.org/index.cfm.
"Palmer amaranth video” - provides an overview of the biology of this weed and the problems that it has caused in the South. Can be viewed online via https://agcrops.osu.edu/specialists/weeds. This was also mailed out to ag industry and CCA’s on a DVD, and we have a number of these left for free distribution.
Finally – in case you are a Gotye fan or needed a fresh perspective on herbicide resistance issues – we provide this link to a video by an Australian farmer who has apparently struggled with resistance. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J7Kv5tl2rK0&feature=youtu.be
You can get addicted to a certain site of action….
In 2013, 52 corn silage hybrids representing 16 commercial brands were evaluated in a joint trial with Michigan State University (MSU). One Ohio location is combined with Michigan's two southern (Zone 1) silage locations. The Ohio test site was located in our Northwest Region at Hoytville (Wood County). The two MSU sites are located in Branch and Lenawee counties, which are on the Ohio/Michigan state line. The test results from the three 2013 locations are treated as one region.
The plots were planted with 4-row air type planters and maintained by each respective state utilizing standard production practices. The center 2 rows were harvested with MSU’s self-propelled forage harvester. Silage tests were harvested uniformly as close to half milk line as possible. Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) Quality Analysis was performed by MSU using their current procedures. Silage results present the percent dry matter of each hybrid plus green weight and dry weight as tons per acre. Other data presented include percent stand, the percentage of in vitro digestible dry matter, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, crude protein and starch. Milk production in pounds per ton and pounds per acre were estimated using MILK2006 (UW-Madison Dairy Science Department).
A complete summary of the Ohio results will be available online at: http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/silagetrials. More information on procedures and additional 2013 MSU silage test data can be viewed on the web at http://www.css.msu.edu/varietytrials/corn/corntrials.htm. For more information on Ohio States crop variety testing, visit: http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~perf
The OSU Agronomic Crops Team members will be offering a CCA Exam preparation class January 15 & 16, 2014 beginning at 9:00 a.m. on the 15th and to adjourn by 5:00 p.m. on the 16th in Sidney, Ohio at the Shelby County Extension office, 810 Fair Rd.
The next North America Certified Crop Adviser Exam Date is February 07, 2014. The Registration Period closed on December 06, 2013. For information on future exams: https://www.certifiedcropadviser.org/exams.
The school is geared to anyone producing hay or silage that will be used to feed ruminate animals. Dairy, Beef, and sheep producers will be able to improve their forage production to increase profits and commercial hay growers will learn new information to be able to better meet there customer’s needs and grow more tons on less acres.
The workshops, to be held Jan. 30, Feb. 4 and Feb. 11. Workshop topics include small grains and double cropping, fertility and manure utilization, agronomic products and additives, precision agricultural technologies for forage production, forage quality evaluation, economics of cutting management, shrink in silage/hay making, forage inventory management and corn silage.
The workshops are from 12:45-3:30 p.m. each day. The course will be offered in Ashtabula, Darke, Licking, Mahoning, Morrow, Knox and Wayne counties via interactive video feeds and in-person speakers.
More information on specific class locations can be found by contacting the following Extension educators:
* Ashtabula County: David Marrison at 440-576-9008 or email@example.com
* Auglaize County: John Smith at 419-739-6580 or firstname.lastname@example.org
* Darke County: Sam Custer at 937-548-5215 or email@example.com
* Licking County: Ted Wiseman at 740-670-5315 or firstname.lastname@example.org
* Mahoning County: Eric Barrett at 330-533-5538 or email@example.com
* Morrow County: Jeff McCutcheon at 419-947-1070 or firstname.lastname@example.org
* Wayne County: Rory Lewandowski at 330-264-8722 or email@example.com
Registration is $45, which includes a notebook of materials and covers all three workshops. The deadline to register Jan. 17, 2014.
More information on the school and a registration form can be found at http://go.osu.edu/forageschool.
A wide range of agronomy programing will be offered across the state in the January through March time period. We hope you take advantage of several of these programs in 2014. For a complete list and any new additions see our calendar page at: https://agcrops.osu.edu/calendar
West Ohio Agronomy Day will be held on Monday, January 13th at St. Michael’s Hall, 33 Elm Street, Fort Loramie. Registration will begin at 8:00 a.m.; breakfast sandwiches, donuts, OJ, and coffee will be available. A Grain Market update from Jerry Meyer (Cargill) and John Leighty (Trupointe) will be held at 8:30 a.m. The programs dealing with Private Pesticide Applicator Recertification Credits for farmers and Continuing Education Units for Certified Crop Advisors then begin at 9:00 a.m.
Once again, Purdue’s Dr. Fred Whitford will be with us, this time talking about “Making Sure you Get the Correct Rate Mixed in the Tank.” This year’s line-up will also see Dr. Laura Lindsay from OSU presenting “Soybean Yield-Limiting Factors in West Central Ohio;” Dr. Andy Michel from OSU talking about “Insect Management in Field Crops: What to look for in 2014;” Dr. Luke Baker, Agronomist/Lab Specialist with Brookside Laboratories talking about “Reading Soil Test Results and Understanding Soil Testing;” and Dr. Robert Mullen from Potash Corporation sharing “New Recommendations for Nutrient Application.”
Additional topics to be addressed include cover crops, resistant weed management, fumigation, manure management and fly control, and introduction to precision ag. Private Pesticide Recertification Credits are available in CORE and Categories 1, 2, and 6. Up to seven (7) CCA credits are also available.
The same program/same categories will be held that evening beginning at 5:30p for those not able to attend during the day. A light supper will be available beginning at 5p.
Farmers who want to recertify their private pesticide applicator’s license should go online at http://pested.osu.edu either to register with a credit card or to download the form to pay by check. Forms may also be picked up at any Ohio Extension office. If not registered online, the completed form can be submitted with the $35 fee on January 14. However, pre-registration is needed by January 3rd in order to ensure enough food.
For those just wanting to attend for the information (and the fellowship!), the cost is $10 if signed up by January 3rd to be paid at the door on January 13 ($15 for “walk-ins”). A single call to 937-498-7239 or email to brown.1522@.osu.edu saves you Five Bucks!
- Glen Arnold (Nutrient Management Field Specialist),
- Debbie Brown (Shelby),
- Sam Custer (Darke),
- Nathan Douridas (FSR Farm Manager),
- Mike Gastier (Huron),
- Mark Badertscher (Hardin),
- Jason Hartschuh (Crawford),
- Les Ober (Geauga),
- Eric Richer (Fulton),
- Alan Sundermeier (Wood),
- Rory Lewandowski (Wayne),
- Steve Prochaska (Agronomy Field Specialist),
- Ron Hammond (Entomology)