Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations - Additional Resources

Original 1995 Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations

Vitosh, M.L., J.W. Johnson, and D.B. Mengel. 1995. Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations for Corn, Soybean, Wheat, and Alfalfa. Extension Bulletin E-2567.

Soil Sampling

Ohio State University Soil Fertility Resources,

Ackerson, Jason. Soil Sampling Guidelines, Purdue Extension,  

Warncke, Darryl, Jon Dahl, and Lee Jacobs. 2009. Nutrient Recommendations for Field Crops in Michigan, Michigan State University Extension.

Michigan State University Soil and Plant Nutrient Lab, 

Grove, John, Raymond Ward, and Raymond Weil. 2007. “Nutrient Stratification in No-till Soils.” Leading Edge, The Journal of No-Till Agriculture.

Soil Testing

North Central Regional Committee on Soil Testing and Plant Analysis (NCERA-13). 2015. Recommended Chemical Soil Test Procedures for the North Central Region. NCR Publication 221.

Murdock, Lloyd and Dottie Call. 2006. “Managing Seasonal Fluctuations of Soil Tests.” AGR-189. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service.

Soil pH

Warncke, Darryl, Laura Bast, and Don Christenson. “Lime for Michigan Soils.” Michigan State University Extension.

Warncke, Darryl, Jon Dahl, and Lee Jacons. 2009. Nutrient Recommendations for Field Crops in Michigan, Michigan State University Extension.

Mullen, Robert, Edwin Lentz, and Maurice Watson. 2016. “Soil Acidity and Liming for Agronomic Production.” AGF-505. Ohio State University Extension.


Corn Nitrogen Rate Calculator,

Sawyer, John, Emerson Nafziger, Gyles Randall, Larry Bundy, George Rehm, and Brad Joern. 2006. Concepts and Rationale for Regional Nitrogen Rate Guidelines for Corn. Iowa State University Extension.

Camberato, James, and Robert Nielsen. Nitrogen Management Guidelines for Corn. Purdue University.

Phosphorus and Potassium/Mehlich-3 extraction

Culman, Steve, Meredith Mann, Stuti Sharma, Muhammad Tariq Saeed, Anthony Fulford, Laura Lindsay, Aaron Booker, Libby Dayton, Branly Eugene, Randall Warden, Kurt Steinke, Jim Camberato, and Brad Joern. 2019. “Converting between Mehlich-3, Bray P, and Ammonium Acetate Soil Test Values.” ANR-75. Ohio State University Extension.

Culman, Steve, Meredith Mann, Stuti Sharma, Muhammad Tariq Saeed, Anthony Fulford, Laura Lindsay, Aaron Brooker, Elizabeth Dayton, Randall, and Brad Joern. 2020. “Calibration of Mehlich-3 with Bray P1 and Ammonium Acetate in the Tri-State Region of Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan.” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 51: 86–97.

Thom, William and James Dollarhide. 2002. “Phosphorus Soil Test Change Following the Addition of Phosphorus Fertilizer to 16 Kentucky Soils. UKnowledge Agronomy Notes 11.

Phosphorus and Potassium/Critical levels and crop response

Culman, Steve, Muhammad Tariq Saeed, and Anthony Fulford. 2017. “Ohio Data that Shaped the Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations.” AGF-518. Ohio State University Extension.

Fulford, Anthony and Steve Culman. 2018. Over-Fertilization Does Not Build Soil Test Phosphorus and Potassium in Ohio. Agronomy Journal 111:56-65.

Grain Nutrient Removal Rates

Culman, Steve, Phoo P. Zone, Nakian Kim, Anthony Fulford, Laura Lindsey, Peter Thomison, Anne Dorrance, Rich Minyo, Eric Richer, Ed Lentz, Ryan Haden, Harold Watters, and Greg LaBarge. 2019. “Nutrients Removed with Harvested Corn, Soybean and Wheat Grain in Ohio.” ANR-74.

Villamil, Maria, Emerson Nafziger, and Gevan Behnke. 2019. “New Grain P and K Concentration Values for Illinois Field Crops.” Crop, Forage & Turfgrass Management 5: 1-7.

Mallarino, Antonio, John Sawyer, and Steve Barnhart. 2013. A General Guide for Crop Nutrient and Limestone Recommendations in Iowa. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach.


Mallarino, Antonio, Daniel Kaiser, Dorivar Ruiz-Diaz, Carrie Laboski, James Camberato, and Tony Vyn. 2017. Micronutrients for Soybean Production in the North Central Region. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach.

Sharma, Stuti, Steve Culman, Anthony Fulford, Laura Lindsey, Douglas Alt, and Grace Looker. 2018. “Corn, Soybean, and Alfalfa Yield Responses to Micronutrient Fertilization in Ohio.” AGF-519. Ohio State University Extension.

Brouder, Sylvie, Andrea Bongen, Kenneth Eck, and Stephen Hawkins. 2003. “Manganese Deficiencies in Indiana Soils.” AY-276-W. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service.

Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations for Corn, Soybeans, Wheat, and Alfalfa

Executive Summary  |  Soil Sampling, Handling, and Testing  |  Soil pH and Lime Recommendations  |  Nitrogen  |  Phosphorus and Potassium  |  Calcium, Magnesium, and Sulfur  |  Micronutrients  | Additional Resources  |  Authors and Acknowledgements

This website provides a summarized version of the Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations, reporting the main points of the document but lacking comprehensive detail. For complete information, please see the full version which is available from The Ohio State University Extension Publications Store.